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Published byTabitha Shenton Modified over 8 years ago
Moving forward from Copenhagen: avenues for cooperation and action Yvo de Boer Executive Secretary UNFCCC
The UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen 2009 While disappointing to many, the conference was important because: It raised climate change policy to where it belongs: the highest political level; It advanced critical technical issues in the Bali Road Map negotiations It produced the Copenhagen Accord (not legally binding): A letter of political intent; 109 countries have associated 2°C short-term and long-term finance a review by 2015 targets; actions
What is not in the Copenhagen Accord US targets for 2030 and 2050 EU objective to reduce emissions by 80 -95% by 2050 Mexico’s intention to halve emissions by 2050 compared to 2002 China’s desire to change the direction of growth Seizing the opportunity in the energy sector – IEA: halving emissions possible by 2050, but requires energy revolution Targets for 2020 are modest; fundamental change is needed to achieve 2050 targets Investments to 2020 vs. investments to 2050
Copenhagen: unresolved issues 1.Issues which came close to being concluded in the AWG- LCA and AWG KP 2.Unresolved issues on which the Copenhagen Accord may provide points of convergence, e.g.: How to translate the long-term goal of 2C into emissions reductions MRV 3.Remaining issues on which little progress was made First negotiating session: 9 – 11 April 2010
Priorities during 2010 Rebuild confidence and trust Progress is needed on finance: the 30 billion USD for adaptation and mitigation in developing countries need to flow - EU Clarity on what “legally binding” could entail Procedure to use points of convergence in the Accord to conclude the Bali Road Map negotiations
Different interests and concerns in the negotiations Developed countries: fear the price tag of action, loss of competitiveness and carbon leakage Developing countries: fear targets imposed through the backdoor Small Island developing countries: fear that too little ambition will lead to their demise Oil producing countries: fear the adverse effects of response measures m ALBA countries: fear that a solution based on capitalist principles will not translate into a solution
The view of developing countries Developing countries are hesitant to engage because: Targets have not been met by industrialised countries – developing countries not ready to abandon the Kyoto Protocol Finance has not been provided They fear that climate change action will constrain their economic growth There is a lingering suspicion towards the industrialised world The benefits of engagement are not clearly perceived
The UN Climate Change Conference in Mexico 2010 Objectives for Mexico should be realistic; the needs of developing countries need to be addressed 1. Fully operational architecture that makes it possible for developing countries to act on climate change Adaptation, mitigation, REDD, technology, capacity- building Clarity on how to generate, administer the 100 billion USD Avenues for cooperation to make it work
The UN Climate Change Conference in Mexico 2010 2. Clear leadership by industrialised countries – rich countries have not managed to reduce emissions per capita, so should not expect developing countries to do so 3. Clarity on the Kyoto Protocol - developing countries Progress could lead to consensus to turn the outcome into a legal treaty in the future.
Climate Change policy in a broader context An opportunity for advancing sustainable economic development objectives: Convergence of climate change and energy security agendas Economic costs of impacts Green growth Climate resilience
Avenues for cooperation through the climate change regime with adequate finance Mitigation, e.g.: NAMAs; Technology mechanism to boost technology transfer; Capacity-building; REDD; Adaptation, e.g.: Adaptation framework to support work at regional and national levels; Mechanisms to manage loss and damage, including insurance;
Avenues for cooperation: private sector involvement The private sector will be key in implementation Directly through the climate change regime: Existing market mechanisms; new mechanisms Possibility of generating new funding Outside the regime, but with benefits for the climate: Business increasingly driven by sustainability issues which: are increasingly greening growth, e.g. energy efficiency standards boost cooperation on green innovation
Avenues for cooperation: the development community #1 The development community needs to assist developing countries, especially LDCs, African countries and Small Island Developing States: assist to respond to the most pressing adaptation needs identify critical technology gaps for adaptation assist in implementing long-term adaptation in the context of overall development strategies
Avenues for cooperation: the development community #2 Assist in mitigation planning: identify options to leap-frog emissions-intensive growth identify investment needs and technology gaps for mitigation assist in implementing mitigation actions
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