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Evaluation of Solitary Lung Mass

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1 Evaluation of Solitary Lung Mass
Vishal Sagar, M.D. Chicago Medical School Chicago, Illinois

2 Pulmonary Mass vs Pulmonary Nodule
Most authorities consider a size of 3-4 cms as the cut off limit for differentiation between pulmonary mass and pulmonary nodule Reason for differentiation- different etiologic factors need to be considered if the size is greater than 3-4 cms

3 Classification of Etiologic factors in a Solitary Pulmonary Mass
Developmental Infectious Neoplastic Inhalational Traumatic Immunologic

4 Developmental Intralobar sequestration
Almost invariably contiguous to the diaphragm in the posterior bronchopulmonary segment Typically well defined margin Cyst formation relatively common Although cystic in nature, mass remains homogeneous until communication is established with contiguous lung as a result of infection

5 Infectious Granulomas
Histoplasmosis Coccidiodomycosis Tuberculosis Atypical Mycobacteria Cryptococcosis Blastomycosis

6 Lung Abscess Predilection for posterior portions of upper or lower lobes Tends to be round Ill defined margins when acute but well defined when chronic No calcification Cavitation is common Etiology- usually Staph or anaeobes Mass may remain unchanged for many weeks

7 Other Infections Ascariasis Pneumocystis Carinii Aspergilloma
Paragonimus Westermani Hydatid Cyst

8 Hydatid Cyst Causative organism- Echinococcus Granulosus
Predilection for lower lobes Tends to have bizarre, irregular shape Calcification may be seen - though extremely rare

9 Neoplastic Benign Malignant Primary Lung Ca Metastatic

10 Benign Tumors Hamartoma Lipoma Fibroma

11 Characteristics that help determine benign nature of the pulmonary mass
Age less than 35 Absence of risk factors like smoking or exposure to occupational carcinogens Small size of the mass ( Size of > 3 cms is associated with an 80% chance of malignancy) Doubling time < 20 Days or > 400 Days Certain patterns of calcification Diffuse Central Laminated Pop corn

12 Primary Pulmonary Carcinoma
Even though all cell types of lung cancer can present as a solitary peripheral lung mass- it is most commonly seen in adenocarcinoma Margins tend to be ill defined Foci of calcification seen on CT in about 5% to 10% of large tumors Cavitation relatively common

13 Metastasis Uncommon for pulmonary metastasis to present as a solitary mass Tends to be sharply defined and lobulated Calcification is rare- almost exclusively restricted to metastatic osteogenic sarcoma or choondrosarcoma

14 Inhalational Foreign Body Inhalation Lipid Pneumonia Silicosis
Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis Round Atelectasis

15 Foreign Body Inhalation
Broken fragments of teeth Food particles Flowering heads of various grasses Oral medications Patients might give a history of recent dental work, general anesthesia or there might be a history of altered consciousness predisposing them to foreign body inhalation/aspiration

16 Lipid Pneumonia Inflammatory reaction associated with oil or fat in the alveoli Usually aspiration of mineral oil used as laxative Dependent portions of upper and lower lobes Well defined shape but often has a shaggy outer margin No calcification seen CT scan often allows specific diagnosis by demonstrating foci of fat attenuation

17 Silicosis Initially involves the periphery of the mid and upper lung zones Margins may be irregular and somewhat ill defined, simulating pulmonary carcinoma A background pattern of diffuse silicosis may be apparent Hilar lymph node enlargement is common and may be associated with “eggshell calcification”

18 Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis
Marked predilection for upper lobes Shape- similar to large opacities of silicosis Calcification generally not seen May Cavitate A background of diffuse nodular or reticulonodular shadows is usually evident

19 Round Atelectasis Most commonly associated with asbestos exposure
Lower zonal predominance, abuts localized area of pleural thickening Shape is generally round or oval No calcification CT shows the mass abutting a thickened pleura; vessels and bronchi curve toward the periphery of the mass

20 Traumatic Pulmonary Hematoma
Usually deep to the point of maximal trauma It is generally sharply defined, round or oval- No calcification No cavitation Resolution may take several months

21 Immunologic Wegners Granulomatosis Sarcoidosis
Extremely Rare for these to present as solitary lung mass

22 References Focal and Multifocal Lung Disease,
ScientificAmerican Medicine, IV, 1-19 Textbook of Respiratory Medicine, 3rd Edition,Murray, Nadel, Mason, Boushey. Fraser and Pare's Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest, 4th edition- Fraser, Muller, Colman, Pare. Textbook of Pulmonary Diseases, Fifth edition- G.L.Baum, Emanuel Wolinsky.

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