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Theoretical research AGEFA PME

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1 Theoretical research AGEFA PME
This presentation is based on a study carried out for Agefa Pme by Fiona Bibby and Franck Brulhart Fiona Bibby, Franck Brulhart, Jean-Jacques Dijoux

2 Purpose of this study To identify the sources and body of knowledge supporting the competences and skills (soft) required to train and develop young people to adopt an entrepreneurial mindset in order to improve performance when working internationally To serve as a work base to identify, check and improve on the sources chosen by an analysis in each partner country of the state of the art in this area To identify the knowledge, skills and competences found in the literature to be used alongside those found in the company research questionnaires and study of existing training which will provide a starting point for the development of a vocational profile for the training unit

3 Context of the study Nowadays, encouraging international entrepreneurship by increasing international mobility and developing international activity is an absolute necessity. One of the major obstacles to this mobility is cultural barriers which makes it necessary to investigate how intercultural interaction is managed. To do so, we must first consider the notions of entrepreneuriat and culture, then analyse cultural deiversity on an international level and then look at possible actions to overcome this diversity.

4 The concept of international entrepreneurship (1)
Entrepreneurship is a complex phenomena which has been understood in deiverse ways (Saporta et Verstraete, 2000). Two main schools of thought structure this area of research (Fayolle, 2004 ; Julien et Marchesnay, 1996). The first one sees entrepreneurship as creating a company or new organisation The second defines entrepreneurship as the study of a process which leads to the discovery, assessment and action on new opportunities.(Fayolle, 2004; Venkatraman, 1997). This approach is linked to entrepreneurship seen as having an entrepreneurial mindset. An entrepreneurial mindset can be defined as tha capacity of an individual or social group to take risks to invest and commit in an « enterprise » in the sense of « an adventure » (Julien et Marchesnay, 1996

5 The concept of international entrepreneurship (2)
Value creation and innovation (in the general sense) are central to an entrepreneurial mindset as are the notions of risk and uncertainty. (Julien et Marchesnay, 1996). What are the characteristics of international entrepreneurship defined as the perception of and seizing of opportunities for international business ? In addition to the qualities usually seen in an entrepreneur (self-confidence, will, decision-making capacity, capacity to learn, aptitude for people management, communication skills, ability to innovate, sense of fine detail, perfectionism etc ) an entrepreneur must have three special qualities : empathy, patience and especially cultural tolerance. (Hinkelman, 1999)

6 The concept of international entrepreneurship (3)
Several European texts adress the question of « entrepreneurship » in education and learning (this will be adressed in more detail in another presentation) The Lisbon Council (2000) quote entrepreneurship as a key competence (transferable and multifunctional) to be integrated into secondary education Key concepts impacting our project « personal quality crucial to managing one’s own life » « fostering the right mindset » « a set of knowledge, skills and attitude » « experiential laearning/learning by doing » Examples of competences quoted for entrepreneurship also valid for development of intercultural competence e.g. empathy,openess to new perspectives,capacity to manage deversity/increased complexity, flexibilty of approach, proactive behaviour, win/win solutions in potentially conflictual situations etc

7 The concept of culture (1)
It is very difficult to define the concept of culture (more than 164 different définitions identified by Kroeber et Kluckhohn en 1952). There are 2 contrasting visions of culture : Universalist conception: culture is foremost « the culture of humanity » (Tylor, 1871). A specific culture : culture refers to a set of characteristics common to a community (Boas, 1940). The « culture and personality » school of thought is based on the specific vision : each culture determines a style of behaviour common to all individuals belonging to a society or a given group. (Mead, 1963)

8 The concept of culture (2)
The « culture and personality «  school is based on two stages: Different cultures are defined by a type, a style, a « pattern », in other words a global structure It’s through a process of education, of cultural transmission and socialisation that individuals take in and integrate this cultural structure (Mead, 1963). Culture and behaviour (Adler, 1986)

9 Managing international diversity Persistance of cultural diversity despite lobalization
Globalisation: tendancy towards cultural convergence and domination of ideals of consumer soceity and market economy (Levi-Strauss, 1955; Hannerz, 1992; Mattelard, 2007). From the juxtaposition of non permeable cultural zones, the world has progressed to increased close contact of inhabitants (« global village »). However this « village » still has economic and social divides and very strong cultural influences. The remaining differentiating factors (religion,family, history, ideology, climate..) underline this international cultural diversity (Equilbey, 2004). In the end, the tendancy towards the globalisation of culture doesn’t necessarily mean homogenisation but leads rather to a mixed or hybrid culture (Hannerz, 1992).

10 Managing international diversity Adaptation to cultural diversity
Faced with this cultural heterogeneousness and if we consider that social interaction is determined by specific cultural models then behaviour and attitude must be modified in order to avoid disturbing or upseting or infringing on the conscious or unconscious cultural norms of the person you are communicating with (Hall, 1990). This intercultural approach means first knowing and recognizing the existance of other cultures, integrating the values on which these cultures are based and to combine taking into account culture characteristics while at the same time considering global imperatives (Dupriez, 2000).

11 Managing international diversity Analysis of cultural diversity and classifying national cultures
Crucial inputs: Hofstede (1980), Hall (1990), Trompenaars (2003) Hofstede (1980, 1991) is known for his gound breaking work on the origins of cultural difference and for his work to identify cultural models according to the country or geographic zone. This work identifies 4 dimensions used to classify national cultural differences : Power Distance Distance hiérarchique Individualism/collectivismDegré d’individualisme Uncertainty avoidance Masculinity/Feminity.

12 Managing international diversity Analysis of cultural diversity and classifying national cultures
Crucial inputs: Hofstede (1980), Hall (1990), Trompenaars (2003) Hall (1990) defines culture as a set of behavioural rules gained during the socialisation process which determine the way in which individuals perceive their environment and use verbal and non verbal communication. Hall’s objective is to provide the necessary tools to decipher the messages from another culture. He underlines three hidden dimensions: Notion of Time (polychronic vs monochronic) Proxemics (space ) Cultural context (High and Low)

13 Managing international diversity Analysis of cultural diversity and classifying national cultures
Crucial inputs: Hofstede (1980), Hall (1990), Trompenaars (2003) Trompenaars (2003, 2004) developed and enriched the work of Hoftede and Hall and created a seven dimension analysis model: Universalism – particularism Sequential time – synchronic time Specific - diffuse, Acheived status – ascribed status Outer directed – inner directed Affectivity – neutrality Individualism - collectivism

14 Managing international diversity Beyond knowing about other cultures towards « awareness/mindfulness » to other cultures Based on this research, there is much literature aiming to help executives and entrepreneurs to overcome cultural barriers. Most of this work highlights « intercultural sensitivity » (Trompenaars, 2003), in other words accepting the relativity of management behaviour and practice This work usually covers 4 main themes : Economic, political, geographic, social, historical Work environment Social and personal relations Practical information 

15 Managing international diversity Beyond knowing about other cultures towards « awareness/mindfulness » to other cultures These models serve to improve knowledge on modes of communication and behaviour, these determinist models can be dangerous in that they may lead to stereotyping behaviour that may be very different from the individual you have to communicate with.(Chevrier, 2003). In recent research we find basically 2 approaches Knowing: culturalist approach where interaction is between two static cultures Know-how: approach where interaction is based on two individuals within a culture As seen above, awareness of the danger of stereotyping is a necessary corollary of any type of cultural briefing and intercultural awareness raising training. Identifying the difference between generalisations (statistics, likelihood) and stereotypes (don’t allow for exceptions/individual cases) and their pertinence, is essential to any intercultural development. Principal authors analysing the genesis and functions of stereotypes and their effects on attitude : Milton Bennet’s (1998). Gudykunst (1994) Richard Brislin (1999),

16 knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviors…),
An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (1) From intercultural intelligence to skills development An overview of the body of knowledge behind the development of the concept of intercultural competence or intercultural intelligence shows it is a balance, adapted in context, between three parts: knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviors…), Empathy/awareness (understanding feelings and needs of other people) self-confidence (understanding feelings and needs of self, knowing what I want, my strengths and weaknesses, emotional stability and intelligence). And so the specific associated behavioural skills 16

17 Principal authors working on an interdisciplinary approach:
An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (2) Beyond knowing to know how: This approach to intercultural competence can be summarised as “a complex of abilities needed to perform effectively and appropriately when interacting with others who are linguistically and culturally different from oneself” (Parry (1999) Work in this field has its sources in many disciplines: linguistics, psychology, ethnology, sociology, business studies and anthropology. Much of the recent research concentrates particularly on writings from the areas of emotional intelligence, communication (intercultural), languages, educational science and socio-psychology. Principal authors working on an interdisciplinary approach: * Parry (1999) * Selmeski (2007) * Fantini (2006) 17

18 Principal authors on affective and behavioural development
An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (3) Intercultural competence development models (1) In the literature concerned with acquiring intercultural competence or raising cultural intelligence, development is a process and an interface between knowledge, feelings, attitudes and behaviours. “Intercultural learning is by nature a cognitive, and also an affective and behavioural affair” Models illustrating phases in cultural adaptation show the interface of cultural awareness and competence between declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. In other words, the interface between factual knowledge (ie the majority of Catalans speak Catalan and not Castilian Spanish) and affective and behavioural elements (knowing how to cope with reactions of some Catalan natives if you start speaking to them in Castilian.) Principal authors on affective and behavioural development * Comeraie(1998) * Brislin (1990) * Bond (1993) 18

19 Principal authors on developmental models :
An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (4) Intercultural competence development models (2) These models use what are considered to be the different stages in the adaptation process to a different culture when living and working abroad. This work addresses culture shock and overcoming it. The models are useful in the perspective of assessing levels of intercultural competence but also be seen as useful as foundations for the development of training. The work is also useful for designing of training before interaction, work in a multicultural environment. The approach is a developmental one with needs analysis. Principal authors on developmental models : * Ruben (1976,1979) Behavioural approach * Bennett (1993) Developmental model of intercultural sensitivity * Olson and Kroeger (2001) Intercultural Sensitivity Index * Byram (1997) and Risager (2007) Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence 19

20 An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (5) Intercultural competence development models (3) Byram (1997) (1) The attitude factor refers to the ability to relativize one’s self and value others, and includes curiosity and openness, readiness to suspend disbelief about other cultures and belief about one’s own . (2) Knowledge of one’s self and others means knowledge of the rules for individual and social interaction and consists of knowing social groups and their practices, both in one’s one culture and in the other culture. (3) The first skill set, the skills of interpreting and relating, describes an individual’s ability to interpret, explain, and relate events and documents from another culture to one’s own culture. (4) The second skill set, the skills of discovery and interaction, allows the individual to acquire “new knowledge of culture and cultural practices,” including the ability to use existing knowledge, attitudes, and skills in cross-cultural interactions. (5) The last factor, critical cultural awareness, describes the ability to use perspectives, practices, and products in one’s own culture and in other cultures to make evaluations. 20

21 An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (6) Emotional intelligence/psychological approaches (1) Increasingly, emotional intelligence is being recognised as a necessary part of the skill set not only of managers but of all professionals. Emotions have often been largely a distant second place compared to rationality and intellect. However recent studies have demonstrated that emotional intelligence is a prime factor in the success of the individual, in overall performance and in learning. (managing emotion, impacting behaviour and results) The development of the term “cultural intelligence” and CQ has recently been developed when talking about emotional competence in a cross cultural environment. Many of the behaviours and attitudes characteristic to emotional intelligence are also essential to succeed in developing intercultural intelligence. Principal authors Salovey and Meyer (1990) Daniel Goleman 21

22 * Roese and Olson 1995. Research on counterfactual thinking
An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (7) Emotional intelligence/psychological approaches (2) EQ through its emphasis on intercultural awareness, empathy, self awareness and social skills, can strongly aid intercultural communication competences. Development in all of these areas similarly leads to the competences required in entrepreneurship. In Western cultures we overestimate in general the role of rational decision making and underestimate the role of emotions. The risk of conflict, of cultural misunderstanding is often rooted in the objective consequence of the misunderstanding itself, but in the possible emotional power associated with it. Cultural misunderstanding can cause strong emotions like shame or embarrassment and which can in turn seriously influence decision or relationships. Managing emotions and conflict become key skills. This clearly underlines the necessity for taking into account the development of emotional intelligence in training which aims to reduce possibilities for misunderstanding and conflict in intercultural training. Principal authors * Roese and Olson Research on counterfactual thinking * Gudykunst, 1993, 1998 an integrative system’s theory * Kim, 1993 and identity negotiation * Ting-Toomey, 1993. 22

23 An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (8) Intercultural communication approaches (1) A number of mostly behavioural concepts has been identified that can be used to distinguish between cultures. These include, for example, the differences in the usage of kinesics (body movements), proxemics (space organisation), oculesics (eye movement), haptics (touching behaviour) as well as paralinguistic concepts such as accents, intonation, speed of talking and so on. Most people will consciously or unconsciously look for affirmative action or reaction by their counterparts. Failure to provide the correct action, may in some cases undermine the spoken word and lead to breakdowns in Communication. Another examined concept may be thought patterns. For example, inductive or deductive thought patterns may have a profound impact on argumentation and communication styles, but also on the way the world is seen and understood. For example, thinking within the Aristotelian logical tradition, which is dominant in most Western cultures may not be understood by people with a more holistic approach to thinking. 23

24 * Gudykunst and Kim in Communicating with Strangers
An interdisciplinary approach to acquisition of skills in intercultural intelligence (8) Intercultural communication approaches (2) Recent research underlines the necessity to address belief systems and mental filters in intercultural interaction : “Mechanisms that delimit the number of alternatives from which we choose when we encode and decode messages. More specifically, the filters limit the predictions we make about how strangers might respond to our communication behaviour. The nature of the predictions we make, in turn, influences the way we choose to encode our messages. Further, the filters delimit what stimuli we pay attention to and how we choose to interpret those stimuli when we decode incoming messages.” Obviously once we are placed in a multicultural environment, we may find our expectations are inaccurate and the degree to which we hold on to them impacts our capacity for effective communication Principal authors * Gudykunst and Kim in Communicating with Strangers * Maletzke Thought patterns 24

25 Next steps… To check and add in each partner country to the body of knowledge supporting identified KSC’s To structure the identified knowledge skills and competences to prepare for work on the profile To identify and link the training and teaching approaches best suited to training such competences (Experiential Learning Theory - David A Kolb) 25

26 Questions raised … Teacher training ? Existing projects and research
Training materials and programme development ? Dissemination of work so far and feedback from national actors ? 26

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