Presentation on theme: "Disaster risk reduction in the United Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Disaster risk reduction in the United Kingdom Simon StricklandCivil Contingencies Secretariat,Cabinet Office, London, UK
2 Hyogo Framework for Action: priorities 1. Making disaster risk reduction a priority2. Improving risk information and early warning3. Building a culture of safety and resilience4. Reducing the risks in key sectors5. Strengthening preparedness for response
3 Hyogo Framework for Action: priority 1 indicators Making disaster risk reduction a priorityLegal frameworkNational multi-sectoral platformNational policy frameworkResources
4 Ensuring a consistent generic national policy framework The Act brings into a single statutory framework those organisations which are most likely to be involved in most emergencies and those likely to be involved heavily in some emergencies.The Act provides a basic framework defining what tasks should be performed and how cooperation should be conducted.In this Government aimed to consolidate and strengthen prior arrangements by placing civil protection on a statutory basis, but not to change radically earlier practice.The Act does not impose a duty on category 1 responders to prevent all emergencies, nor does it require these organisations to undertake remedial works which might prevent a possible emergency at a future date.Essential relevant organisations have statutory responsibility to prepare plans for major industrial hazards (including nuclear, oil and gas) under HSE legislation.In practice Category 1 responders will want voluntarily to integrate planning arrangements under the different statutory regimes at the LRF.Also: Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999; Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996; Radiation Regulations Prevention – except in an imminent emergency - is covered by other legislation e.g. on fire safety, industrial safety, building regulations, flood defence, maritime safety, and health protection.
5 Legislation: Civil Contingencies Act 2004 1. Sets responsibilities and expectations for local responders:-Category 1: police, fire, ambulance, local authorities, major hospitals, coastguard:-Risk assessmentEmergency planningWarning and informing the publicBusiness continuity planningCo-operationInformation-sharingCategory 2: water, energy, telecommunications companies, HSE:-Co-operation and information-sharing2. Specifies emergency powers
6 Multi-agency and multi-sectoral cooperation: Local and Regional Resilience Fora (LRF and RRF) 43 LRF fora in England and Wales; 4 in London; meet 6 monthly.Police, fire and rescue authorities, ambulance services, Environment Agency, port health authorities, LAs ….Utility companies, health authorities attend as needed.Aim to:compile local Risk Registers;co-ordinate approach to legal duties; andsupport contingency planning across agencies, exercise co-ordination, and other training events.9 RRFs for nine Regions (Government Offices); plus Wales.Police, fire, other emergency services recommended to participate.Utility companies, transport, health authorities attend as neededAim to improve coordination:across the region;between the centre and the region;between the region and the local response capability; andbetween regions.LRFsRRFsCategory 1 “Core responders”Emergency services:police, fire, ambulance, maritime & coastguard;all principal local authorities and port health authorities;health bodies (Primary Care Trusts, Acute Trusts, Foundation Trusts, HPA etc);Environment Agency.Category 2 “Co-operating responders”Utilities:electricity, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications;Transportrail, Train Operating Companies, London Underground, TfL, airport operators, harbour authorities, highways agency;Health bodies:Strategic Health Authorities;Health and Safety Executive.
7 UK integrated disaster management framework Inter-ministerial committeesInternational coordinationCivil Contingencies SecretariatBusiness Advisory Groupfor Civil ProtectionLine ministries /Government DepartmentsVoluntary SectorCivil Protection WorkingParty and ForumScientific and wider research-based expertiseThe framework is generally not hierachical: the LRF works alongside other elements in the multi-agency planning framework at local, regional and central government levels. LRF is not subordinate to RRF, which is not subordinate to central government. Direction and support should flow in both directions.Category 1 responders are required to have regard to the activities of relevant voluntary organisations when developing plans.Local Authorities are required to provide advice and assistance to those undertaking commercial activities and to voluntary organisations in relation to business continuity management in the event of emergencies.Many organisations are not required to participate under the Act but should be encouraged to take part in fora and cooperate in planning where appropriate: armed forces; retail companies; insurance companies; bus and haulage companies; taxi firms; shipping and ferry companies; media companies; private communications networks dedicated to public safety; offshore oil and gas industry; security firms; internal drainage boards; general practitioners and chemists.Regional Resilience ForaLocal Resilience ForaCommunity-led civil society initiatives
8 Hyogo Framework for Action: priority 2 indicators 2. Improving risk information and early warningNational risk assessmentsSystems for data monitoring and disseminationEarly warning systemsCommunity reach
9 Risk assessmentTo summarise, each of the individual risks can be plotted onto a matrix reflecting their assessed impact and likelihood. In this way, we can ensure we are focusing on and planning against the main risks while ensuring that we are capable of responding effectively to other more remote risks.The Act requires all Category 1 responders to undertake risk assessment – to facilitate joined-up local planning, enable an accessible overview for public and officials, and to inform regional and national risk assessments.
10 Use of the risk assessment - at all levels PRIMARYCAPABILITYDRIVERSCatastrophic (5)PLANWITHINEXISTINGRESOURCESKeyVery highHighMediumLowSignificant (4)ImpactModerate (3)SECONDARYCAPABILITYDRIVERSMinor (2)Those risks falling into the top right corner (i.e those with greatest likelihood and impact) are the primary capability drivers. Those that are most likely, but have a lesser impact are secondary drivers. Others are ranked accordingly. In this way, we can ensure we are focusing on and planning against the main risks while ensuring that we are capable of responding effectively to other more remote risks.Risk assessment is cyclical and interactive, involving the full range of stakeholders and allowing for review and revision. The entire risk assessment process must be cyclical if it is to retain currency. Risks vary with changes in context, hazards / threats, and in available plans and capabilities. Hence the need for periodic review.The aim of taking a consistent approach across levels (local-regional-national) is to enable understanding and monitoring, comparison of exposure to risks, to facilitate regional aggregation of local risk assessments, and to ensure that plans and capabilities are commensurate with the risks.Hence there is guidance on rigour and proportionality in the risk assessment process, which should use the best available evidence and judgement.MONITORInsignificant(1),Very rare (1)Rare (2)Unlikely (3)Possible (4)Probable(5)Likelihood
11 Improving ability to predict floods by bringing together meteorological and hydrological services The Meteorological Office’s leading high-resolution weather forecasting & modelling experts are now co-located with theEnvironment Agency’s expertise in flood mapping and modelling, warnings and response, and local knowledge. This collaboration now forms the UK’s Flood Forecasting Centre.Government’s Commitment to implement 2008 Pitt Review recommendations on infrastructure:50. Publish National Framework & Policy Statement: 30th June 200951. Identify the vulnerability & risk of assets to flooding in Sector Resilience Plans: 31st December 200952. Build a level of resilience into critical infrastructure assets53. Establish role of economic regulators in resilience: guidance by mid-200954. Business continuity planning for infrastructure operators: national resilience plan by late-2010
12 The duty to communicate with the public The legislation places a duty on all Category 1 responders to:-make the public aware of the risks of emergencies and how these responders are prepared to deal with them; andwarn the public that an emergency has occurred, or is about to occur.Category 1 responders are required to arrange for publication ofAll or part of plans maintained under the Act in so far as this is necessary or desirable for the purposes of dealing with an emergency.Environment Agency has placed flood-risk maps on its web-site so that people can see the risk assessment to a high degree of spatial resolution. Flood risk assessment is required for local consent to plans for building works.
13 Variety of alerting systems are already in place in the UK. No single system is sufficient for all scenarios.Integrated warning and informing packages are needed to reach the highest percentage of the “population at risk”.CCS is exploring scope for a national alerting capability.Current warning methods include both generic and specific systems such as :Mobilising officers to give instructions on- siteLoud-hailers and other amplified means, PA announcements in public buildings, shopping centres, sports venues, transport systems, etc.Electronic or variable message boards, eg at the roadside, tube networks, motorways; alsosite specific sirens etcMedia of course are critical through TV and radio, internet / websites; and automated telephone / fax / / text messages to subscribers e.g. Text based alerting systems (such as Vocal / City Alert / Rapid Reach) allow police to contact local businesses in a given area; can be used as part of a city centre evacuation strategy but also for lower level events like street closures etc: police formulate a brief message on a password protected internet page (or via a phone bureau) and the message goes to all subscribers as SMS mobile text message, a pager message or an . ;Arrangements should be flexible and extendable to meet escalation of event;Resilient; And Capture vulnerable and transient populationSo what you need to capture the widest number of people is a tool kit (or golf bag) of methods.
14 Hyogo Framework for Action: priority 3 indicators 3. Building a culture of safety and resilienceNational public awareness strategyEducational curricula
15 Putting into the public domain information about emergency preparedness and response issues Publication of the National Risk RegisterPublication of Community Risk RegistersEstablishing web-site pagesIssuing leaflets to raise awarenessWorking with schoolsAs announced in the National Security Strategy published earlier this year, the Cabinet Office has published the National Risk Register.This sets out the Government assessment of the likelihood and potential impact of a range of different risks that may directly affect the UK.The National Risk Register is designed to increase awareness of the kinds of risks the UK faces, and encourage individuals and organisations to think about their own preparedness.The register also includes details of what the Government and emergency services are doing to prepare for emergencies.The National Risk Register is available on the Cabinet Office website atCommunity risk registers are approved and published by Local Resilience Fora (LRFs) which have been established under the Civil Contingencies Act. LRFs include representatives from local emergency services, and public, private and voluntary organisations. In order to produce the Community Risk Registers, LRFs use a combination of their own judgement about each risk, as well as guidance provided by central government drawn from the National Risk Assessment.
16 Hyogo Framework for Action: priority 4 indicators 4. Reducing the risks in key sectorsEnvironmental protection, management and climate changeAddressing needs of vulnerable groupsLand-use planning and regulationCritical infrastructure protectionAssessing major infrastructure project proposalsOn environmental protection, management and climate change HMG has published The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan – National Strategy for Climate and Energy.This strategy (amended in July 2009) sets out a plan to protect the public from immediate risk; to prepare for the future; to limit the severity of future climate change through a new international agreement; to build a low carbon UK; and to support individuals, communities and businesses to play their part.This includes commitments on energy use (by 2020 to reduce carbon emissions by 18% from 2008 levels), but also to help the most vulnerable through mandated social price support, community-based approaches to delivering “green homes” in low income areas, and increasing the level of grants to support energy-saving measures.Building Regulations will change to improve energy efficiency by 25% by 2010, and by 44% by 2013, as compared to 2006 levels.
17 Protecting critical national infrastructure Reduce vulnerability through proportionate measures:Physical measures e.g. police, barriersElectronic measuresPersonnel screeningOwner/operators of infrastructure (mainly Private Sector)Workingtogether toprovide suitableprotectionTripartite approach to protective securityGovernment Departmentslead for their sector(Home Office co-ordinate)Security adviserse.g. CPNI & Police CTSA(Physical, Electronic & Personnel)
18 Vulnerability of critical infrastructure: Summer 2007 floods Impacts on critical infrastructure:350,000 people without clean water for up to 17 days42,000 people without power in Gloucester for 24 hours10,000 people trapped on M5 Motorway overnightMany others stranded on the rail networkHospitals, schools and care homes affected
19 Hyogo Framework for Action: priority 5 indicators 5. Strengthening preparedness for responseIndependent assessment of preparedness capacities and mechanismsPlanning at all levels with regular exercise-based trainingEnsuring effective disaster preparedness and response at all levelsResources to support effective response and recoveryProcedures for review and for learning lessonsOn independent assessment, the Audit Commission reviews annually plans for the improvement of local authority planning for internal and external emergencies. The Audit Commission has provided an optional self-assessment tool for local authorities.Audit Commission and Fire Service Inspectorate work together on areas of common interest.The 10 main bodies responsible for inspecting, regulating and auditing health care have by a 2004 agreement to provide more joined-up inspection programmes.HMIC assesses performance of Act duties by police forces in England, Wales and Northern Ireland through the Capability Review process.
20 Single & multi-agency civil protection training Fire Service CollegeUrban search & rescueHazardous chemical/substance incidentsCBRN decontaminationSenior incident commandPolice National CBRN CentreCBRN practical & tactical skillsCBRN incident command trainingNational Police CollegeEPCFSCCBRNCNPC
21 National-level exercise activities, 2008-2011 Amber Glass – Fuel ShortageGreen Star – CBRN Recovery2009Saxon Shore – CBRN ResponseWhite Noise – Mass Telecoms Failure2010Avogadro – Gas Shortage Castle Rock – CBRN 2011Watermark - Flooding
22 An integrated approach across levels and sectors HSLLREVIEWIDENTIFYLLHSNCSHS – Horizon scanningRI – Risk identificationNRA – National Risk AssessmentRRA – Regional Risk AssessmentCRR – Community Risk RegisterNPA – National Planning AssumptionsRPA – Regional Planning AssumptionsCR – Capability RequirementsCT – Capability TargetsPM – Performance ManagementNCS – National Capability SurveyLL – Lessons LearnedNCSLLHSNCSRIRIRIPMPMPMEvidenceNRACTRRACRRCTNPACTCRNationalRPACRRegionalCRACTASSESSLocal
23 The HFA National Platform: roles and responsibilities Develop national coordination mechanismsConduct baseline assessments on the status of disaster risk reductionPublish and up-date summaries of national programmesReview national progress towards achieving the objectives and priorities of HFAImplement relevant international legal instrumentsIntegrate disaster risk reduction with climate change strategies
24 UK integrated disaster management framework HMG:the UK NationalPlatformInter-ministerial committeesInternational coordinationCivil Contingencies SecretariatBusiness Advisory Groupfor Civil ProtectionLine ministries /Government DepartmentsVoluntary SectorCivil Protection WorkingParty and ForumScientific and wider research-based expertiseRegional Resilience ForaThe HFA National Platform: roles and responsibilities:-Develop national coordination mechanismsConduct baseline assessments on the status of disaster risk reductionPublish and up-date summaries of national programmesReview national progress towards achieving the objectives and priorities of HFAImplement relevant international legal instrumentsIntegrate disaster risk reduction with climate change strategiesThe UK undertakes all these functions through a framework which involves all official levels from central through regional to local, and all sectors from the public through to the voluntary and private.In this integrated framework, it is HMG which constitutes the National Platform we now formally declare, and its focal point of national contact is the Civil Contingencies Secretariat’s international desk.Local Resilience ForaCommunity-led civil society initiatives
25 Membership of regional organisations or entities in Europe Key:membership ofregionalorganisations or entitiesNumber12345