Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

South Asia.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "South Asia."— Presentation transcript:

1 South Asia

2 Pakistan South Asia by majority religion India Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh Hindu Islam Buddhism Sri Lanka Maldives

3 Introduction Geopolitical tension  religious division
Hindu (India)  Muslim (Pakistan) Demographic concerns  high natural growth High population density Limited resource bases Less connected to the global economy Slow economic growth Inward orientation

4 Environmental Geography
Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

5 The Four Subregions of South Asia
Mountains of the North Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Peninsular India The Southern Islands

6 Mountains of the North Mt. Everest
Includes the world’s highest mountain Produced by the collision between tectonic plates  seismically active

7 Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands
Brahmaputra R. Indus R. Ganges R. Created by three major river systems Population core areas

8 Peninsular India Deccan Plateau Eastern Ghats Western Ghats
Continuous Western Ghats  narrow western coastal plains Discontinuous Eastern Ghats  broad eastern coastal plains  high population densities

9 The Southern Islands Sri Lanka: Maldives:
Mountains in the southern interior ringed by extensive coastal plains Maldives: Flat and low coral atolls

10 Monsoon rain – June in Mumbai
During the summer monsoon, Mumbai receives more than 70 inches of rain in just three months

11 (Distinct seasonal change of wind direction)
South Asia’s Climates Most of South Asia has three distinct seasons June – Oct.: warm and rainy season Nov. – Feb: cool and dry season Match – May: hot period What is the major factor of this distinct season? Monsoon (Distinct seasonal change of wind direction)

12 Monsoons in South Asia Summer  wet Winter  dry Southwest monsoon
Northeast monsoon

13 Orographic rainfall  wet
451 inches Rain-shadow effect  dry 10 inches Orographic rainfall results from the uplifting and cooling of moist monsoon winds over high mountains Rainfall varies greatly from place to place Ganges Delta  rice; Punjab  wheat

14 Flooding in Bangladesh
Natural condition High precipitation Low-lying land Cyclone Ganges Delta Man-made condition High population density Deforestation in the river headwater

15 Population and Settlement
The Demographic Dilemma

16 Soon will become the world’s most populous region
 High natural growth Fertility patterns vary by countries  family planning India, Bangladesh vs. Pakistan One of the least urbanized regions in the world

17 Population distribution
 Fertile soils  Dependable water supplies

18 Pull factor: rural-to-urban migration
Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta Push factor: refugees Afghanistan, Kashmir, Burma, Sri Lanka

19 Crop zones in South Asia
Punjab Rice  wet, fertile Wheat  semiarid, fertile Millet, Sorghum  less fertile

20 Cattle in India India has the world’s largest cattle population
They don’t produce meat due to Hinduism Rather, produce milk as major sources of protein Also used for plowing and pulling carts

21 Major cities in South Asia
Islamabad Lahore Delhi Karachi Dhaka Calcutta Mumbai

22 Major cities in South Asia
India Mumbai: financial center and media capital of India Delhi: political capital (former Muslim capital, colonial capital) Calcutta: trading center, declined after partition (1947) Pakistan Karachi: commercial core Islamabad: forward capital – religious, and geopolitical Bangladesh Dhaka: global center for clothing, and shoe manufacturing

23 Overurbanization in South Asia
Mumbai hutments

24 Cultural Coherence and Diversity
A Common Heritage Rent by Religious Rivalries

25 Long united by Hinduism Arrival of Islam British imperialism
Caste System Arrival of Islam Religious rivalries between Hindu and Muslim British imperialism Use of English due to multilingualism

26 Historic overview of South Asia
3000 B.C. 2000 B.C. 800 B.C. 1000 1600 A.D. Indus Valley Civilization Invasion of Indo-Aryan Ganges Valley Civilization Muslim rules Hinduism Caste System Sikhism Buddhism Islam Jainism

27 Religious diversity in South Asia
Hinduism (1500 B.C.~) Indus valley civilization + Indo-Aryan religion Persist to present day (eg. Caste System); main religion in India Buddhism, Jainism (500 B.C.~) Challenge to Hinduism orthodoxy Islam (1000 A.D.~) Muslim rule in the north or trade network in the south Active conversion from Hindus to Islam particularly in northwest (Pakistan) and northeast (Bangladesh) Sikhism (1400 A.D. ~) Hinduism + Islam in Punjab(modern bnd b/w. India and Pakistan)

28 Geographies of Religion
Hinduism India, S Nepal Islam Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives 15% of India Sikhism: Punjab Buddhism Sri Lanka, Bhutan, NE Kashmir, N Nepal Jainism: Gujarat Christian: Goa, NE India Muslim rule Sikhism Jainism Northeast tribal area Goa Trade networks of the Arabian Sea

29 Linguistic diversity in South Asia
Indo-European (north) Iranian Baluchi, Pashtun  western Pakistan, Afghanistan Indo-Aryan Closely associated with Indian states Bengali, Punjabi  Indian states with Bangladesh, eastern Pakistan Singhalese, Divehi  Sri Lanka, Maldives Dravidian (south) Confined to southern India

30 Geographies of Language
Indo-European north Dravidian south

31 Linguistic Dilemmas So many different languages in one country
India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka India has 15 official languages with no unified national language Role of media Hindi is spreading through popular media Role of English Main integrating language of India

32 South Asian global diaspora
British India: settlements in British colonies Contemporary India: migrated into U.S. and North America

33 Geopolitical Framework
A Deeply Divided Region

34 British rule (mid 18c ~ mid 20c) Independence and partition
Separation of Pakistan from India (1947) Separation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan (1971) Continuing tension between Pakistan and India Intensified by the nuclear capabilities of both

35 Mughal Empire (mid 16c ~ mid 19c)
Muslim Portuguese Hindu Dutch

36 British Conquest (mid 18c ~ mid 20c)
During chaotic waning years of the Mughal Empire (18c), the British East India Company began to monopolize trade After Sepoy Rebellion (1856), South Asia was ruled directly by the British government

37 Independence and Partition
The British withdrew from South Asia in 1947 The region was divided into two countries: a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan (1947) Bangladesh was separated from East Pakistan (1971)

38 Conflicts in Kashmir  Hostility between Pakistan and India
Before the partition, this regions of predominantly Muslim population was ruled by a Hindu maharaja Some Kashmirs wish to to join Pakistan while others argue for an independent state

39 Separatism in Punjab region
 Hostility between the Sikh majority and the Indian government Sikh-majority Punjab Hindu-majority Haryana Sikh leaders strived for autonomy Sikh temple at Amritsar

40 Civil war in Sri Lanka  Religious and linguistic differences
Hindu Tamils : support political autonomy Buddhist Singhalese : favor unitary government

41 Global implication of the tension between India and Pakistan
During Cold War Pakistan – U.S.  India –? Soviet Union After 1991 Pakistan – China  India China’s animosity toward India Pakistan – Taliban Afghanistan After 9/11 Pakistan – U.S.  Taliban Afghanistan But anti-Americanism in Pakistan needs to be addressed

42 Economic and Social Development
Burdened by Poverty

43 South Asian Poverty Disparity between social classes
World-class scientific and technological accomplishments Largest undernourished and malnourished people Developmental contradictions in economic history Land of great riches until the early modern period Exploitation by external forces Central Asian, the British

44 The poorest world region along with Sub-Saharan Africa
Pessimism: undercut by large and growing population Optimism: globally interconnected IT industry

45 The Himalayan countries
Disadvantaged by their rugged terrain and remote locations Bhutan Isolationist policy Nepal Closely integrated with the Indian economy Relies heavily on international tourism

46 Bangladesh Bad news Good news
Burdened by massive population, environmental degradation, and colonial legacy Devastating effect of partition (1947) Increasingly uncompetitive Jute market Good news Competitive in textile manufacture  low wage rate Falling birthrate  economic growth begins to catch up with its population growth

47 Pakistan Current potential Future potential
Productive agricultural sector (eg. Punjab) Large textile industry  huge cotton crop Export of surgical implements  legacy of sword-making center Future potential Burdened by high level of defense spending Powerful landlord class with no benefit for economy Failure to develop IT industry (cf. India)

48 Sri Lanka and the Maldives
Specialization in textiles and tea Perennial civil war overshadows potentials such as strategic location, and high levels of education Maldives Revenues from fishing and international tourism

49 Economic division in India
Lesser developed areas Centers of economic growth Green Revolution Subsistence economy Social conservatism Political corruption Merchants Remittance Socialist economic policy India’s economic pacesetter High-tech sector

50 Major industrial areas

51 Economic policy after independence
Mixed socialist-capitalist system by the 1980s Economic nationalism Self-sufficiency policy Liberalization of economy since the early 1990s Privatization of state-owned industries Deregulation Internationalization

52 Global linkages

53 High levels of social welfare in the south
Sri Lanka, Maldives, southwestern India Low levels of social welfare in the north Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, northern India

54 The status of women Women has a very low social position in both the Hindu and Muslim traditions Women in the Hindu tradition Excluded from inheriting land, early marriage, dowry, not allowed to remarry Women has a high social position in southern India and Sri Lanka Inheritance through the female line in Kerala

Download ppt "South Asia."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google