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Water and the Major Minerals

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1 Water and the Major Minerals
Chapter 12

2 Water and the Body Fluids
Water constitutes majority of body weight Body composition Females Obese people Elderly

3 Water and the Body Fluids
Carries nutrients and waste products Maintains structure of large molecules Participates in metabolic reactions Serves as a solvent Acts as a lubricant and cushion Aids in regulation of body temperature Maintains blood volume

4 Water Balance and Recommended Intake
Cellular fluids Intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Interstitial fluid Intravascular fluid

5 Water Balance and Recommended Intake
Water intake Thirst and satiety Mouth, hypothalamus, and nerves Thirst response lags behind the body’s need for water Dehydration symptoms Water intoxication Symptoms

6 Signs of Dehydration

7 Water Balance and Recommended Intake
Sources Water Beverages Foods Condensation reactions Oxidation of energy-yielding nutrients

8 Water Balance and Recommended Intake
Losses Minimum excretion each day as urine Vapor from lungs Sweat from skin Loss in feces Recommendations Needs vary AI for total water

9 Water Balance and Recommended Intake
Health effects Meet bodily needs Protect against urinary stones & constipation Concentration, alertness, and short-term memory Type of water Hard water Soft water

10 Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
Kidneys are central to blood volume and pressure maintenance Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland Water-conserving hormone Stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water Events trigger thirst

11 Nephron Function in the Kidney

12 Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
Renin Enzyme released by kidney cells when blood pressure is low Kidneys reabsorb sodium Water retention Angiotensin Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I Convert to active form – angiotensin II

13 Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
Aldosterone Released from adrenal glands Release stimulated by angiotensin II Signals kidneys Excrete potassium Retain sodium

14 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Fluid balance Two-thirds inside the cells One-third outside the cells Dissociation of salt Sodium – cation Chloride – anion Conduct electricity

15 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Electrolytes attract water Water molecules have net charge of zero Water follows electrolytes Electrolytes predominantly outside of cell Sodium and chloride Electrolytes predominantly inside of cell Potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate Selectively permeable membranes

16 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Proteins regulate fluid movement Attract water Transport proteins Passage of ions across cell membranes Sodium-potassium pump Regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance Two sites GI tract Kidneys

17 Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
Causes of imbalance Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea Heavy sweating Burns Traumatic wounds Some medications An imbalance can result in a medical emergency

18 Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
Solutes lost depend on why fluid is lost Vomiting or diarrhea – sodium Tumor development – potassium Replacing lost fluids and electrolytes Plain cool water and regular foods Special replacement fluids

19 Acid-Base Balance Regulation of acidity Concentration of hydrogen ions
Narrow pH range to avoid life-threatening consequences Denaturation of proteins Concentration of hydrogen ions High hydrogen concentration – acidic Low hydrogen concentration – basic

20 The pH Scale

21 Acid-Base Balance Body defense against pH fluctuation Buffers in blood
Bicarbonate Carbonic acid Respiration in lungs Excretion in kidneys

22 The Minerals – An Overview
Major vs. trace minerals Variation in amounts needed Inorganic elements Always retain chemical identity Cannot be destroyed by heat, air, acid, or mixing Body’s absorption and handling Freely or with carriers

23 The Minerals – An Overview
Bioavailability Varies Food binders Nutrient interactions Presence of other minerals Absorption, metabolism, and excretion Varied roles

24 Sodium Roles in body Sodium travels freely in the blood
Principal cation of extracellular fluid Primary regulator of volume Acid-base balance Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction Sodium travels freely in the blood Kidneys: filter out and return what is needed

25 Sodium Recommendations Hypertension Diets rarely lack sodium
UL for adults Average intake in U.S. exceeds the UL Hypertension Salt vs. sodium or chloride alone Salt intake DASH diet

26 Sodium Bone Loss (osteoporosis) Food sources
High salt intake is associated with increased calcium excretion Potassium as protective factor DASH diet recommendation Food sources Processed foods More sodium Less potassium

27 Sodium Deficiency Toxicity Conditions causing a deficiency Acute
Hyponatremia Toxicity Acute Edema and high blood pressure Chronic Hypertension

28 Chloride Essential nutrient Roles in the body
Major anion of extracellular fluids Moves passively across membranes Associates with sodium and potassium Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance Part of hydrochloric acid

29 Chloride Recommendations and intakes Deficiency and toxicity
Abundant in processed foods Recommendations are slightly higher, but still equivalent to those of sodium Deficiency and toxicity Diets rarely lack chloride Conditions leading to deficiency Toxicity – due to water deficiency

30 Potassium Principal intracellular cation Roles in the body
Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance Helps maintain cell integrity Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction

31 Potassium Recommendations and intakes Hypertension
Fresh foods are richest sources AI for potassium Increase fruit and vegetable consumption Hypertension Diets low in potassium Diets high in potassium Risk of stroke

32 Potassium Deficiency Toxicity Increase in blood pressure
Salt sensitivity Kidney stones Bone turnover Irregular heartbeats Muscle weakness Glucose intolerance Toxicity No UL Overconsumption of potassium salts or supplements Certain diseases or treatments Kidneys accelerate excretion

33 Calcium Most abundant mineral in the body Adequate intake
Grows a healthy skeleton in early life Helps minimize bone loss in later life Majority of body’s calcium is in bones and teeth Part of bone structure Calcium bank

34 Calcium In bones In teeth Calcium salts form crystals
Hydroxyapatite Strength and rigidity to maturing bones Bone remodeling In teeth Fluoride stabilizes calcium crystals in teeth

35 Calcium In body fluids Helps to maintain normal blood pressure
Extracellular calcium Participates in blood clotting Intracellular calcium Regulation of muscle contraction Transmission of nerve impulses Secretion of hormones Activation of some enzyme reactions

36 Calcium Disease prevention Obesity Hypertension Blood cholesterol
Diabetes Colon cancer Obesity May help maintain healthy body weight Inverse relationship with food sources

37 Calcium Calcium balance Involves system of hormones and vitamin D
Parathyroid hormone & calcitonin Organ system response Intestines Bones Kidneys Calcium rigor Calcium tetany

38 Calcium Absorption Adults absorb about 30% of the calcium ingested
Stomach’s acidity – calcium soluble Vitamin D – calcium-binding protein Efficiency and inadequate intakes Factors that enhance calcium absorption Factors that inhibit calcium absorption

39 Calcium Recommendations
Based on amount needed to retain calcium in bones Peak bone mass Set high enough to accommodate 30% absorption rate UL has been established Adverse effects from supplements

40 Calcium Milk products Other foods Calcium and iron
Calcium is most abundant in milk products Conceal milk products in foods Consequences of drinking too little milk Other foods Bioavailability Fortified juices and foods Calcium and iron

41 Bioavailability of Calcium from Selected Foods

42 Calcium Deficiency Peak bone mass by late 20s
All adults lose bone with age Begins between 30 and 40 years of age Osteopenia Osteoporosis Silent disease Blood samples offer no clues

43 Phases of Bone Development Throughout Life

44 Phosphorus Second most abundant mineral in body Roles in body
Hydroxyapatite crystals of bone and teeth Roles in body Part of major buffer system Part of DNA and RNA Assists in energy metabolism Helps transport lipids in the blood Structural component of cell membranes

45 Phosphorus Recommendations and intakes Deficiencies are unlikely
Best sources Foods rich in proteins Phosphoric acid intake and bone density UL has been established

46 Magnesium Body locations More than half is found in the bones
Reservoir Muscles and soft tissues Extracellular fluid

47 Magnesium Roles in body Maintains bone health
Part of protein making machinery Necessary for energy metabolism Participates in enzyme systems Catalyst in ATP production Muscle contraction and blood clotting Supports normal function of immune system

48 Magnesium Intakes Sources
Average dietary intake for U.S. adults is below recommendations Hard water contributions Sources Legumes, seeds, and nuts Leafy green vegetables

49 Magnesium Deficiency Hypertension Toxicity Rarely occurs
Occurs with diseases Causes tetany and impair central nervous system activity Hypertension Protective factor Toxicity

50 Sulfate Sources of sulfate No recommended intake Food and beverages
Amino acids Methionine Cysteine No recommended intake Normal protein intake

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