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Water & The Major Minerals

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Presentation on theme: "Water & The Major Minerals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Water & The Major Minerals
Chapter 12

2 Water & the Body Fluids Water
Makes up 60% (3/5) of adult’s body weight. Higher for children Makes up 75% (3/4) of lean muscle. 25% (1/4) of fat Males have more water (more lean muscle) Females, the elderly, obese have less

3 Water & the Body Fluids Water in body fluids:
Carries nutrients & waste products through the body. Maintains structure of large molecules. Participates in metabolic reactions. Serves as a solvent so substances can participate in metabolic reactions. Acts as a lubricant & cushion around joints, inside eyes, in the spinal cord, & as amniotic sac during pregnancy. Aids in regulation of body temperature. Maintains blood volume.

4 Water Balance & Recommended Intakes
Fluid inside cell Intracellular fluid Fluid outside cell Extracellular fluid Interstitial fluid Fluid surrounding cells Composition between the two differs. Composition in each remains constant under normal conditions.

5 Water Balance & Recommended Intakes
Water intake Influenced by thirst & satiety Sensed by hypothalamus & nerves.

6 Water Balance Dehydration : loss of water & loss not replaced.
Symptoms: Water intoxication (rare) : excessive water consumption, may result due to a kidney disorder which reduces the amount of urine produced. Symptoms Hyponatremia

7 Water Balance

8 Water Balance Water Sources Nearly all foods contain water 
Water is produced during cellular respiration & during condensation reactions.

9 Water Balances Water losses
Body must excrete a minimum of 500 mL (~ 2 cups) of urine a day. Reason Water is also lost As sweat From lungs as vapor In feces Average daily losses

10 Water Balance Water Recommendations
Water needs vary depending on diet, environmental conditions, activity, & humidity. Sometimes expressed in proportion to amount of energy expended under average environmental conditions. For a person that expends 2000 kcal a day, the amount is 2 – 3 L (8 – 12 cups). Agrees with AI for total amount set by DRI. If physically active or a hot day, a person will probably need more.

11 Water Balance Water Recommendations (continued)
Any beverage can meet fluid needs. Caffeinated beverages Caffeine acts as a diuretic. Causes more water to be lost. People can consume it to meet daily fluid needs, however. Alcohol Acts as a diuretic. Should not be used to meet daily fluid needs.

12 Water Balance Health Effects of Water Protection against
Hard or Soft Water makes a difference

13 Water Balance Bottled water – people may think its better & safer.
Not necessarily true in US. Distilled water Has all minerals removed. Natural water Comes from spring or well Mineral content may not be changed. Mineral water Contains more minerals. Minerals give it unique taste. Usually has higher sodium content.

14 Blood Volume & Blood Pressure
Kidneys are major control for homeostasis of body fluids. Kidneys regulate blood volume which influences blood pressure. Kidneys reabsorb needed substances. Kidneys excrete metabolic wastes with some water.

15 Nephron (p. 387)

16 Blood Volume & Blood Pressure
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) Released Action

17 Blood Volume Regulation (p. 388)

18 Blood Volume & Blood Pressure
Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone

19 Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Dissociation of Salt in Water Mineral salts dissociates (separates) into ions when dissolved in water. Ions - Positive ions called cations. Negative ions called anions. Electrolytes – salts that dissolve in water & dissociate into ions. conduct electrical currents.

20 Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Dissociation of Salt in Water (continued) Electrolyte Balance Major extracellular ions Major intracellular ions

21 Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Electrolytes attract water Water has net charge of zero. Water is polar molecule Hydrogen Oxygen

22 Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Water Follows Electrolytes Water moves across cell membranes when electrolytes move across. Osmosis Osmotic pressure

23 Osmosis (p. 391)

24 Fluid & Electrolyte Balance
Proteins Regulate Flow of Fluids & Ions Sodium –Potassium Pump (protein) Regulates Regulation of Fluid & Electrolyte Balance GI tract & Kidneys regulate GI tract Kidneys

25 Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Different Solutes Lost by Different Routes Solutes lost due to vomiting, sweating, bleeding or diarrhea Sodium and chloride Adrenal gland tumor Oversecretion of aldosterone Kidneys may excrete too much potassim. Uncontrolled diabetes Excretion of glucose

26 Fluid & Electrolyte Imbalances
Replacing Lost Fluids & Electrolytes Normal replacement of lost fluids Drink water Severe cases ORT (oral rehydration therapy)

27 Acid – Base Balance Ions also regulate acidity of fluids.
pH of body ( ) must be maintained otherwise life threatening situations result. Examples Acidity is determine by H+ 3 system defend against pH fluctuations

28 Acid-Base Balance Systems to prevent pH fluctuations
1. Regulations by Buffers 2. Regulation in the Lungs Raising & slowing respiration rate 3.Regulation in Kidneys Reabsorb or excreting bicarbonate.

29 The Minerals - Overview
Inorganic Retain chemical identity Remain in body until excreted Can’t be changed into anything else Can’t be destroyed by heat, air, acid, or mixing. Body’s Handling of Minerals

30 The Minerals - Overview
Variable Bioavailability Binders Found in some foods. Prevent mineral absorption Phytates Oxalates

31 Sodium Sodium Roles in body Sodium & Hypertension
Maintains normal fluid electrolyte balance Assists in nerve impulse conduction Assists in muscle contraction Sodium & Hypertension

32 Sodium Sodium & Bone Loss
Calcium excretion increased with high salt intake. See in summary: p. 397

33 Chloride Chloride Roles in Body
Maintains normal fluid & electrolyte balance. Part of HCL Necessary for proper digestion

34 Potassium Potassium Roles in Body Potassium & Hypertension
Maintains normal fluid & electrolyte balance. Assists in may reactions. Supports cell integrity Assists in nerve impulse conduction. Aids in muscle contraction. Potassium & Hypertension

35 Calcium Calcium Roles in Body Mineralization of bones & teeth.
Involved in muscle contraction & relaxation. Important in nerve functions, blood clotting, blood pressure.

36 Calcium Calcium in bones
As bones form, calcium forms hydroxyapatite on matrix of collagen. As mineralization continues, bones become denser & stronger. Bones constantly remodeled. Bones gain & lose minerals Children gain more than they lose. Teeth Formed in similar pattern, but they are not bone. Fluoride hardens & stabilizes the crystals of teeth

37 Calcium Calcium in body fluids Extracellular fluids
Helps maintain blood pressure Reason Also participates in blood clotting. Intracellular fluids Binds to proteins and activates them Proteins participate in

38 Calcium Calcium & Disease Prevention Calcium & Obesity
May protect against hypertension. Calcium & Obesity May help maintain a healthy body weight.

39 Calcium Calcium balance Involves hormones & vitamin D.
3 organs respond whenever blood calcium levels rise or fall. Intestines, bones, kidneys Note figure , p. 401 Calcium rigor Calcium tetany

40 Calcium Calcium absorption Factors to enhance absorption
Acidity of stomach keeps Ca soluble. Vitamin D helps to make the calcium binding protein needed for absorption. Factors that inhibit absorption (many that enhance also inhibit) Lack of stomach acid Vitamin D deficiency High phosphorus intake Phytates Oxalates

41 Calcium Calcium in Milk Calcium in other foods
Calcium most abundant in milk Consequences of drinking too little milk. Calcium in other foods Tofu Almonds Broccoli

42 Calcium Calcium Deficiency Toxicity Symptoms
Stunted growth in children Osteoporosis in adults Toxicity Symptoms Constipation Risk of kidney stones Interference with absorption of other minerals.

43 Phosphorus Phosphorus Roles in Body Phosphorus Deficiency
Mineralization of bones & teeth Part of every cell Important in genetic material Part of phospholipids Used in energy transfer & in buffer systems Phosphorus Deficiency Muscular weaaakness Bone pain

44 Magnesium Roles in Body Deficiency Bone mineralizaiton
Building of proteins Enyme action Muscular contraction Nerve impulse conduction Deficiency Weakness confusion

45 Sulfate Part of proteins Stabilizes protein shape Disulfide bridges

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