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This is a Mr. Levoy PowerPoint The United States Court System.

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1 This is a Mr. Levoy PowerPoint The United States Court System

2 The Declaration of Independence This is the "Rough Draft” of the Declaration. July 4, 1776

3 Statement on human rights… We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.


5 What are some rights and freedoms afforded to citizens of the United States?

6 The Amendments: (Bill of Rights) The First Amendment: Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Right to assemble Right for observance of religion

7 The Second Amendment Protect a citizen’s right to bear arms The Fourth Amendment Prevents the government from unreasonable search and seizure of the property of US citizens. Government officials must be in possession of a warrant issued by a judge and based on probable cause.

8 The Fifth Amendment “I’ll take the Fifth” Gives people the right to choose not to testify in court if they feel their own testimony will incriminate themselves Gives the accused the right to due process The Seventh Amendment Right for trial by jury List reasons why trial by jury an important right?...

9 Trial Systems throughout History 1.Trial by Ordeal 1.Trial by Oath 2.Trial by Combat 3.Trial by Jury

10 Trial by Ordeal Middle Ages: Permeated the judicial system of Europe, Asia, Africa, colonial America Thought process: during the trial, the gods would intervene and show a sign that indicated guilt or innocence of the accused. These were mentally and physically taxing ordeals meant to test one’s strength, endurance, or resolve

11 The punishment for pleading guilty was almost always far more lenient than the punishment ‘shown’ to be guilty during the trial. Could push a person to their breaking point To this day, it is known to still take place in Liberia. Some examples of Trial by Ordeal include…

12 Trial by Fire

13 Trial by Hot Iron

14 Trial by Water

15 Trial by Hot Water

16 Trial by Snake

17 Trial by Oath In a trial by oath, people accused of a crime only had to swear, or take an oath, that they were innocent-unless others swore against them. To lie under oath would be to risk being ostracized by the community.

18 Trial by Combat In Europe during the Middle Ages, disputing parties could settle their disagreement by combat. They could either fight their own battles or choose a champion to fight for them.

19 Trial by Jury Americans are granted the right to trial by jury by the Sixth Amendment (criminal trials) and Seventh Amendment (civil trials) to the United States Constitution. In a jury trial, lawyers for the prosecution and defense present evidence to a jury of citizens who collectively determine the guilt or innocence of the accused.

20 Cases are decided by peers, not authority Impartial parties hear cases A group of citizens must weigh the evidence and agree on a verdict Trial by jury is an important right We have a responsibility to serve when called upon!

21 What should be the criteria for which jurors are selected? Who might be excluded from jury duty service?

22 Rules of Eligibility for Jury Service Jurors must: Be citizens of the United States Be at least 18 years of age Reside primarily in the judicial district for at least one year Be able to read, write, speak, and understand the English language Be mentally and physically capable of rendering jury service Not have felony charges pending against them Not have felony convictions (unless civil rights have been legally restored)

23 Groups Exempt from Jury Service: Members of the armed forces on active duty Members of professional fire and police departments “Public Officers” of federal, state, or local governments who are actively engaged in the performance of public duties

24 Types of Trials Civil Cases that involve individuals arguing over private matters: agreements money owed property Criminal Cases that involve a crime against society: Theft Drunk driving murder People in the US are guaranteed the right to trial by jury in both civil and criminal cases.

25 Bailiff Civil case Class action Criminal case Defendant Defense attorney Grand jury Plaintiff Prosecution Prosecuting attorney Terms to know:




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