Presentation on theme: "Carbon Emissions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration Atmospheric increase = Emissions from fossil fuels + Net emissions from changes in land use."— Presentation transcript:
The Kyoto Protocol is an International Treaty to Reduce GHG emission Organized by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Adopted in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Will come into force early in 2005.
Annex I countries have a crucial role. Between 2008-2012 reduce their GHG emissions by 5% below 1990 levels. Different countries would have different targets. US had agreed to reduce by 7% below 1990 levels. Countries may offset emissions by increasing sinks.
Annex I Countries 24 developed countries (OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) European Union 14 countries with economies in transition. (e.g. Croatia)
Kyoto Treaty Ratification 127 parties have signed it. Countries accounting for 55% of CO2 emissions in 1990 had to sign it for it to come into effect. When Russia ratified it, the signatories represented 61% of 1990 emissions. The US has not signed the treaty.
Developing Nations Obligated to reduce GHG emissions. Do not have specific emission reduction targets. Treaty has provisions to help LDC reduce GHG emissions.
Innovative Mechanisms: Joint Implementation An Annex I party develops a project that decreases emissions or increases sinks in another Annex I party.
Innovative Mechanisms: Clean Development Mechanism An Annex I party implements CO2 sequestration or emission reduction projects in a non- Annex I party (e.g. reforestation in Costa Rica) and receives credits to meet its own targets.
Innovative Mechanisms: Emissions Trading An Annex I party transfers some of its emissions to another country for a price. This process allows the free market to operate to reduce the cost of emissions reduction. Companies that broker deals already exist.
Why didn’t the US ratify Kyoto? US energy-related CO2 emissions in 2010 are projected to be 34 percent above the 1990 level. Emission reduction policy to reduce emissions would have significant impacts on the US economy. No emission targets for China & India
What steps could the US take to reduce CO2 emissions? We will look at this question in detail during the remainder of the semester.