Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Anti-inflammatory Drugs # Lab 4 #. Inflammation: it is a biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells,

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Anti-inflammatory Drugs # Lab 4 #. Inflammation: it is a biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anti-inflammatory Drugs # Lab 4 #

2 Inflammation: it is a biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Inflammation may ends with either : Complete healing of tissues Permanent destruction of tissues

3 Signs of inflammation Redness: Due to vasodilatation by effects of releasing of histamine, bradykinin and prostaglandin. Hotness: Due to increased blood flow.

4 Signs of inflammation Swelling: due to increased vascular permeability by the released mediators and increased the exudate in the inflammed area Pain: due to irritation of nerve ending by inflammation and the pressure of the swelling on the nerve ending.

5 Inflammatory mediators: –histamine –5-HT (serotonin) –Bradykinin –Prostaglandins (eg PGE2 ) –Interleukines –Substance P –Nitrous oxide Main inflammatory mediator

6 Phases of Inflammation Fluid phase (vascular phase): Increased vasodilatation leads to increased permeability of the vascular bed to plasma protein. - Increasing fluid will help in: 1- dilution of the irritant 2- increase conc. of antibodies from blood to inflamed area 3- supply nutrients to the immune cells.

7 Cellular phase (exudative phase): Involves migration of tissue macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to the inflamed area. Fibrous phase (proliferative phase): A new connective tissue (fibrous) containing fibroblast and capillaries is formed. Phases of Inflammation

8 Classification of the Inflammation Non – immunological : Induced by chemical irritants such as formalin Immunological : Induced by infections such as bacterial infection

9 Anti-inflammatory Drugs Steroidal Non-steroidal - Cortisone - Hydrocortisone - Acetaminophen - Aspirin

10 Steroids (SAIDs) - Containing steroid moiety in their sturcure Glucocorticoids (GC) Cortisone

11 Glucocorticoids (GC) Natural Synthetic - Cortisone - Hydrocortisone - Betamethasone - Dexamethasone - Predinsone Fluorinated Glucocorticoids Prednisolone Liver enzymes

12 Glucocorticoids (GC) Mechanism of Action : They act by indirect inhibition of the enzyme phospholipase A2 which activate synthesis of arachidonic acid with subsequent formation of prostaglandins. They induce synthesis of a protein “lipocortin-1” which has the inhibitory effect on phospholipase A2. - -

13 phospholipase A2 GC inhibition

14 Side Effects : Immunosuppression Hyperglycemia due to increased gluconeogensis, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance ("steroid diabetes"); Steroid-induced osteoporosis: reduced bone density (osteoporosis, Osteoporosis, higher fracture risk, slower fracture repair) Redistribution of body fat: moon face, buffalo hump and truncal obesity. Adrenal insufficiency Muscle breakdown (proteolysis), weakness; reduced muscle mass and repair Anovulation, irregularity of menstrual periods Growth failure, pubertal delay Increased plasma amino acids, increased urea formation; Glaucoma due to increased cranial pressure

15 Side Effects : Moon facebuffalo hump

16 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NASID) They don’t contain steroid moiety They also have analgesic and antipyretic activity

17 Mechanism of Action : NSAIDs inhibit synthesis of PGs which are the main factors Playing a role in the inflammaltion. Inhibit synthesis of PGs through inhibition of cyclooxygenase Enzymes which are responsible for production of PGs

18 GC inhibition phospholipase A2

19 Cyclooxygenese ( COX ) Isoforms : COX 2 COX 1 - Constitutive - Many tissues ( blood vessels stomach and kidney ) - inducible -By inflammatory processes and mediators COX 3has recently been described

20 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NASID) Non-selective COX inhibitors selective COX2 inhibitors - Aspirin - Ibuprofen - Diclofenac - Meloxicam - Celecoxib - Rofecoxib

21 Side Effects : Unwanted effects, owing largely to inhibtion of COX1 Particularly in the elderly and include : - Despepsia, nausea and vomiting, ulceration and gastric damage in chronic users, with risk of hemorrhage - Reversible renal insufficiency - Analgesic-associated nephropathy ( irreversible ) - Liver disorders, in high doses, e.g. acetaminophen

22 Measurement the activity of anti-inflammatory drugs - Method : Paw Oedema Method - Principle : induction a chemical inflammation by injecting an irritant ( formalin ) into rat’s paw - Objective : measure the anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac and hydrocortisone with different doses )

23 -Procedure : 1- select 5 rats 2- inject each rat 1 ml urethane for anesthesia. 3- select one as control and inject the rest of them intraperitoneal rat 1 >>> control rat 2 >>> 40 mg/kg diclofenac rat 3 >>> 80 mg/kg diclofenac rat 4 >>> 20 mg/kg hydrocortisone rat 5 >>> 40 mg/kg hydrocortisone 4- after 1 hr, inject 0.1 ml formalin in each rat ( 2 to 5 ) into their paws >>> to induce inflammation. 5- after 1 hr, take the reading using the plythysmometer of each rat paw ( right and left ). 6- calculate the inflammation and response % for each drug.

24 Response % inflammat ion LPRPDose ___Ccontrol T140 mg/kg vol. T280 mg/kg vol. T320 mg/kg hydro. T440 mg/kg hydro. Inflammation = RP - LP Response % = ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ X 100 C - T C Response % >>>> Anti-inflammatory activity

Download ppt "Anti-inflammatory Drugs # Lab 4 #. Inflammation: it is a biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells,"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google