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Gaius Julius Caesar Part II Magister Henderson Latin III / IV.

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1 Gaius Julius Caesar Part II Magister Henderson Latin III / IV

2 The First Triumverate Caesar’s financial benefactor, Crassus, had been political rivals with the distinguished Roman general, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). Caesar saw the potential in reconciling the two men, and succeeded in doing so, creating a secret three person alliance that has come to be called the first triumvirate. The triumvirate was sealed with the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter, Julia.

3 Caesar in Gaul Caesar was granted Cisalpine Gaul as his proconsular province to govern. But when unrest developed across the Alps, the senator also granted him governorship of Transapline Gaul, which today is south France. This command gave Caesar command over four legions and opportunity for military glory.

4 Caesar in Gaul (continued) Caesar spent 8 years in Gaul subduing many tribes and making a few into allies. During that time he crossed the Rhine and repelled German invaders. He also crossed the English channel and won a victory against the tribes in Britannia, though he did not leave behind a permanent occupation force.

5 The End of the Triumvirate While Caesar was in Britain, his daughter Julia died in childbirth. Caesar attempted to reaffirm the alliance with Pompey by arranging a marriage with his great- niece, Octavia (Augustus’ sister), but Pompey declined the arrangement. Soon after Crassus was killed along with his son Publius while fighting the Parthians in the east.

6 The End of the Triumvirate (continued) Pompey instead married Publius Crassus’ widow, Cornelia Metalla, who was the daughter of Caecilius Metallus Scipio, one of Caesar’s most outspoken critics. The next year Pompey was appointed sole consul, a rare move designed by the Senate to give him power to decide Caesar’s fate once he left his appointment as governor.

7 The Start of Civil War The next year Caesar petitioned to run for consul in absentia, so that he could take political office immediately after leaving his governorship; a petition Pompey denied. Ordered to disband his army, and certain he would face prosecution upon his return to Rome, Caesar crossed the Rubicon into Italy with his army.

8 The Start of Civil War Rather than defend Rome, Pompey and many Senators fled for Epirus, where Pompey had nine legions. In his haste to flee, Pompey forgot to secure Rome’s treasury, a tactical error that gave Caesar a financial advantage in the war. With Pompey and his supporters gone, Caesar took possession of Rome without a fight.

9 Pompey’s Defeat Caesar left his lieutenant Marc Antony, in charge at Rome while he engaged Pompey in Greece. In July of 47 BC, Caesar was nearly defeated at Dyrrhachium, but escaped when Pompey did not pursue him aggressively enough. Later that same year, Caesar won the decisive victory at Pharsalus. Defeated Pompey fled to Egypt.

10 Caesar’s Dictatorship Returned to Rome and was appointed dictator, while Marc Antony was made his magister equitum. Caesar followed Pompey to Egypt, but upon arrival was presented with Pompey’s severed head, by Ptolemy, the young king of Egypt. Displeased by Ptolemy’s treatment of Pompey, Caesar supported Ptolemy’s older sister, Cleopatra, in her claim for the throne.

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