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P4: Explaining Motion Linking together forces, energy and motion

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Speed: How quickly an object covers a set distance Speed (m/s) = distance (m) time (s) d t x s d irty t oes s mell! Instantaneous speed … speed at a given point Average speed … distance of whole journey divided by total time taken- which takes into account slowing down and speeding up.

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Showing speeds with distance time graphs Key features: Flat = stationary Straight diagonal = constant speed Increasingly steeper curve = speeding up Decreasingly steep curve = slowing down Gradient = speed Time/ seconds Distance/ metres Graph for a 100m sprint: Can you find where the athlete… 1.Slows down 2.Speeds up 3.Moves at a constant speed? Copy the graph then show a much faster runner’s graph on the same axes

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Finding the speed using the gradient of distance- time graphs Change in y/ change in x = speed 40/2 = 20 m/s Time/ seconds Distance/ metres Change in distance=70-30= 40 m Time for this change to occur= 6-4=2 s 4 6 70 30 (Gradient)

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Velocity: Simply the speed of an object at a point of time PLUS the direction in which it travels (vector quantity) Units are the same as speed: m/s The cheetah’s speed for the overall chase was 85 km/ h; its’ velocity reached 113 km/ h running north after 10.4 seconds. If the cheetah then ran south at the same speed the velocity would be negative e.g. - 113 km/ h running south

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Showing acceleration with velocity- time graphs Acceleration is a change in the velocity (either speeding up OR slowing down OR changing direction) Is the roller coaster accelerating? Velocity (m/ s west) Time taken (s) High positive Acceleration (steep) Constant Velocity (level) Low positive acceleration High negative acceleration Where would you show a stationary object on this graph?

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Forces Newton’s 3 rd Law: “For every action there will be an equal but opposite reaction” Rephrased…when one object exerts a force on another, it always experiences a force in return If the person jumps to shore what happens to the boat? Describe and explain what happens when the balloon deflates

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Examples…In which direction will be the reaction force? Wings push downwards; Feet push backwards Weight of cork pulls towards the centre of the Earth The magnet attracts the Iron objects (add both arrows)

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Interactions at surfaces The Sumo wrestler exerts a force downwards which deforms the floor surface slightly causing an equal force upwards (the reaction of the surface) stationary moving For two surfaces sliding past each other…each surface experiences a force in the direction which prevents (or tends to prevent) relative movement; this interaction is called friction… in the case of the bear not very much!

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Resultant forces The overall effect of all the forces acting on an object taking into account their sizes and directions. e.g. For a pendulum swinging back… In flight there are 4 main forces to consider! Which force must be largest to slow the plane down?

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Momentum If there is a resultant force then there will be a change of momentum in the direction of the force Momentum (kg m/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s) The change in momentum varies according to the resultant force and the time this force acts Change in (kg m/s) = resultant force (N) x time force acts (s) momentum M m x v M om m ashes v egetables Draw your own revision triangle for this equation and make up your own mnemonic

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Changing momentum If there is no change in momentum the object stays at rest OR if moving stays at a constant speed in a straight line During collisions a big change in momentum occurs but since… Change in (kg m/s) = resultant force (N) x time force momentum acts (s) If we increase the time over which the force acts then the resultant force will be smaller (the change in momentum is unchanged!) This is the principle used in crash helmets, air bags, seat belts, climbing ropes and crumple zones on cars

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Driving and counter forces Driving forceCounter force (complete this section for each one) Boat engine Cyclists’ legs pedalling Table tennis bat hitting ping pong ball Wind blowing a sail on a yacht Thrust from engine: driving force Air resistance friction Counter forces Using the car diagram below show the force arrows for when the car is (a)speeding up (b)slowing down and (c)at a constant speed

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Changing Energy Work done (J) = force (N) x distance (m) Work is being done on the rock opposite so the energy of the rock increases Work is being done by the person so the energy of the person decreases Change in energy (J) = work done (J) The falling rock will gain kinetic energy and lose gravitational potential energy

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Gravitational Potential Energy Change in GPE (J) = weight (N) x vertical height difference (m) 2.5 m fall 800N man Show all the forces acting on the man (left) and make the resultant force clear. Calculate the change in GPE In which position does the baseball have the greatest potential energy?

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Kinetic Energy Value depends on the speed of an object and the mass Speed has a much greater effect than mass KE (J) = ½ mass (kg) x velocity 2 ((m/s) 2 ) A force which causes the object to speed up increases the kinetic energy. Use this statement to explain why the speed limit in towns is 30 mph {“It’s 30 for a reason!”}

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Conservation of energy Energy input from fuel 150kJ (A) Kinetic energy 100 kJ (useful) (B) Heat and sound energy dissipated due to friction and air resistance (wasted) 50 kJ Energy input will equal the energy output BUT the gain in kinetic energy of an object will be less than the work done on the object because of the forces of friction and air resistance.

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Motion occurs when an object changes position.

Motion occurs when an object changes position.

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