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Food Animal Cardiology

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Presentation on theme: "Food Animal Cardiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Animal Cardiology
M. S. Gill, DVM, MS

2 Initial examination Complete physical examination important
With special attention given to: Mucous membrane color Presence of jugular pulses Edema

3 Jugular pulse

4 Jugular pulse & edema

5 Examination of the heart
Heart occupies ventral position in the thorax Between the 3rd and 6th ribs 3/5’s of heart is on the left side

6 Examination of the heart
Auscultation Heart sounds S1, S2, S3, S4 Areas of auscultation of heart valves Assessment of murmurs

7 Examination of the heart
S1 – beginning of ventricular systole (contracting myocardium and closure of AV valves) S2 – closure of the semilunar valves S3 – ventricular filling S4 – atrial contraction Normal sequence S4 – S1 – S2 – S3

8 Examination of the heart

9 Examination of the heart
Grading murmurs Grade I Grade II Grade III Grade IV Grade V Grade I is not clinically significant. Grades IV and V are usually significant

10 Evaluation of the heart
Heart rate – should equal pulse Tachycardia Bradycardia Rhythm Most common arrhythmia in cattle is atrial fibrillation

11 Congenital cardiac defects
Early detection important Expense Genetic implications

12 Congenital cardiac defects
Ventricular septal defect* Left to right shunt Tetralogy of Fallot Right to left shunt, cyanosis Ectopia cordis Patent foramen ovale PDA

13 Vegetative endocarditis
Murmur CHF may develop Arcanobacter pyogenes or α-hemolytic strep in cattle, erysipelothrix or strep in swine Lesions on valves are usually embolic in origin Right AV valve usually affected

14 Vegetative endocarditis
Clinical signs Poor doing animal Exercise intolerance CHF Fluctuating fever Clinical pathology Severe leukocytosis Diagnostics Blood cultures Echocardiography

15 Vegetative endocarditis
Large cauliflower-like or small verrucous lesions on heart valves, or, Shrunken, scarred heart valves

16 Vegetative endocarditis

17 Vegetative endocarditis
Treatment Cephalosporins/penicillin to calves with omphalophlebitis Long term, broad spectrum antibiotics to cattle with vegetative endocarditis Prognosis poor

18 Pericarditis Inflammation of the visceral and parietal pericardium
Most likely due to traumatic pericarditis – extension of traumatic reticuloperitonitis

19 Pericarditis Pathophysiology
Penetration of pericardium by metallic foreign body fibrinous exudate effusion with splashing sounds compromised heart function CHF

20 Pericarditis Clinical signs Pain Kyphosis Abduction of elbows
Shallow respirations T – º F Fluid splashing cardiac sounds or friction rubs or muffled heart sounds CHF may develop late in the course

21 Pericarditis Most cows with pericarditis die in 1-3 weeks
Some develop chronic pericarditis Leukocytosis – 16,000-30,000 WBC

22 Pericarditis Pericardiocentesis
Centesis performed at the 4th or 5th intercostal space at the level of the elbow on the left side

23 Pericarditis

24 Pericarditis Fibrin deposition Purulent exudate
Thickened pericardium / epicardium Adhesions Possible presence of metallic foreign body

25 Pericarditis Treatment Not very successful
Long term, broad spectrum antibiotics 5th or 6th rib resection (pericardiotomy) may be attempted but not very successful

26 Myocardial disease Myocarditis Cardiomyopathy
Inflammation of the myocardial wall (bacterial, viral, parasitic) Cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy is the only form of clinical significance in large animals

27 Myocarditis Bacterial Viral Parasitic
Staph, Clostridium, 2º to bacteremia or septicemia, pericarditis, endocarditis Viral FMD Parasitic Toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, sarcocystis

28 Myocarditis May be incidental finding at necropsy
Treat primary condition – i.e., cow with mastitis

29 Cardiomyopathy Toxicities: Deficiencies Monensin, lasalocid Gossypol
Cassia Phalaris Deficiencies Vitamin E/Se (WMD or nutritional myodegeneration) Copper deficiency

30 Cardiomyopathy Other causes Excess molybdenum High sulfates
Lymphosarcoma – neoplastic infiltration of myocardium

31 Cardiomyopathy Clinical signs – usually present with CHF
Treatment – poor prognosis – treat CHF

32 Cor pulmonale Pulmonary hypertension, brisket disease, high altitude disease, or high mountain disease Cor pulmonale reflects effect of lung dysfunction on heart, therefore, heart disease is secondary

33 Cor pulmonale Pathophysiology:
Pulmonary hypertension right heart hypertrophy, dilatation or failure Underlying cause is hypoxic vasoconstriction caused by High altitude dwelling (> 6,000 feet) Pulmonary disease (bronchopneumonia or lungworms)

34 Cor pulmonale Clinical signs Treatment Signs of CHF
Remove from high altitude Treat any primary lung disease Reversible if treated early

35 Differentials for CHF Vegetative endocarditis Pericarditis Myocarditis
Cardiac lymphosarcoma Dilated cardiomyopathy Cor pulmonale or brisket disease

36 Electrocardiography Useful for diagnosis of arrhythmias Base-apex lead
Normal ECG: Small positive P wave (may be notched) QRS complex is either rS or QS T is a positive monophasic or negative/positive biphasic wave

37 Normal cattle ECG

38 Atrial fibrillation Most common arrhythmia in cattle
Absence of P waves, presence of f waves, ventricular tachycardia with irregular rhythm Atria remain distended & quiver due to numerous independent fronts of depolarization CHF unlikely

39 Atrial fibrillation Organic – underlying heart disease
Functional - 2º to other abnormalities GI disturbances, electrolyte abnormalities, pulmonary disease, brain disease

40 Atrial fibrillation Most cases are functional
May be paroxysmal or established May convert to normal sinus rhythm spontaneously Treatment involves correcting underlying condition – quinidine has been used in some cases that don’t correct on own

41 Atrial fibrillation

42 Atrial fibrillation

43 Sinus arrhythmia

44 Premature ventricular contractions
Etiology Primary myocardial disease Secondary to increased sympathetic tone, hypoxia, anemia, uremia, acidosis, sepsis, hypokalemia or various drugs Rate normal but rhythm irregular QRS complex of a PVC is premature, bizarre, prolonged & of larger amplitude Unifocal or multifocal Treat underlying condition or lidocaine

45 PVC – multifocal or multiform

46 PVC - unifocal

47 Pericarditis

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