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Using Feminist Theory to Study Families

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1 Using Feminist Theory to Study Families

2 What is feminist theory?
“An analysis of women’s subordination for the purpose of figuring out how to change it” (Gordon 1979) Includes theories about: the origins and nature of inequality the social construction of sex and gender Evaluative AND empirical Often used in combination with other theories of families (e.g., exchange, life course).

3 Where does it come from? Emerged from three waves of feminist (political) movements. First Wave – (1840s)-1880s-1920s Second Wave – 1960s-1990s Third Wave – 1990s-present Developed by scholars in a variety of academic disciplines (especially anthropology, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology).

4 What is it good for? Helping to explain: Power relations in families.
Division of labor in families and societies. Meaning-making in (and about) families. How understandings and assumptions about gender influence family dynamics and public policies.

5 Three Waves of (Western) Feminism
Second Wave 1960s-1990s First Wave (1840s)-1880s-1920s Third Wave 1990s-present

6 Elizabeth Cady Stanton (c. 1848)
The First Wave Heavily influenced by Enlightenment thinking Chief goals: Women’s suffrage (right to vote), access to education, family planning Critique of women’s (restricted) role in the home Elizabeth Cady Stanton (c. 1848) & Anna Julia Cooper (1893)

7 The Second Wave Liberal and cultural variants
Sought to expand access to education, types of paid work, equal pay for equal work Focus on sexual liberation and freedom from sexual violence Aimed to free women from excessive concern with beauty and appearance Gloria Steinem & Dorothy Pitman Hughes

8 The Third Wave Recognizes diversity among women across race/ethnicity, class, sexual orientation Promotes breaking down/ playing with gender categories

9 Three Waves of (Feminist?) Wonder Woman

10 Focus and Premises Women’s experience is central
Can provide a basis for knowledge claims Feminist theory has many voices Because different women come from different social locations (e.g., by race, ethnicity, social class, sexual orientation, age, nationality) Feminist theory is emancipatory In addition to trying to predict social processes, seeks to describe, evaluate, and prescribe social action

11 Main Concepts Sex and gender Three dimensions of gender: Sexism
Sex = biology Gender = social and cultural Three dimensions of gender: Gender identity Structural gender (social status) Cultural gender (symbols and meanings) Sexism Harmful attributions made about everyone with a certain trait believed to be inherent or genetic (e.g., sex)

12 Main Concepts Family and household Public and private
HH = coresidential units F = prevailing ideologies about how/where/with whom people should live and divide labor Public and private Gendered spheres (c. 1830s onward) Seen as artificial distinction that supports and maintain an inequitable gender system

13 Propositions Gender structures our experiences.
Gender structures all societies. Women as a class [sic] are devalued and oppressed. As a result of sex, gender beliefs, and historical and continuing sexism and oppression, there exists a “female culture.”

14 Propositions The family is not monolithic.
In terms of organization and in terms of patterns by race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The family is a central institution for the reproduction of oppression. Via socialization and social expectations In terms of support for work, etc. [not in book]

15 Varieties of Feminist Theory
Liberal Feminism Marxist/Socialist Feminism Cultural Feminism Multicultural and Critical Race [and Third World] Feminism Other variants: Lesbian, psychoanalytic, anarchist, etc.

16 Liberal Feminism Rooted in Enlightenment philosophy: “All men [sic] are created equal.” Emphasis on equality of opportunity and removal of barriers (e.g., to education, work, leisure activities) Mostly closely associated with first (and less-radical second) wave

17 Marxist/Socialist Feminism
Rooted in Marx and Engels’ writings Who controls the means of reproduction (as well as the means of production)? “Sex class” underlies other social divisions (e.g., race, SES) Employers exploit women’s free reproductive labor, “cooperate” with male employees to limit women’s paid work (even though women might work for less)

18 Cultural Feminism Posits men and women as (inherently) different, seeks to revalue traditionally devalued feminine traits (e.g., nurturing, expressiveness) Mostly closely associated with radical second-wave feminism

19 Multicultural, Critical Race, and “Third World” Feminism
Questions basic constructs like “women” & “female” (and “family”) Focus on intersecting identities Concern with exploitation of immigrant and poor women Draws on poststructuralist and postmodernist theory Associated with third-wave feminism

20 Empirical Applications
Understanding the gendered division of labor Second shifts and the stalled revolution (Hochschild) Equal vs. fair? The role of ideology “Capitalization” of housework (Ehrenreich) Measuring Diversity in Feminism Are different strands of feminism associated with age, social class, occupation, race, etc.?

21 Practical Applications
Family policy reform To reflect facts that families are diverse and that different family members may have different interests Examples: Sexual violence & domestic violence, wage discrimination, day care, accounting for unpaid work Family therapy Revising traditional family therapy to acknowledge that conflict may be useful and good. Family scholarship and the research process Critiquing research that presumes families are private, neglects diversity of family forms, avoids gender analysis Incorporating reflexive methods

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