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chapter 6 Leadership McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e

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1 chapter 6 Leadership McGraw-Hill/Irwin Contemporary Management, 5/e
Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 The Nature of Leadership
The process by which a person use influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals.

3 Question? What is an individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals? Manager Leader Chief Organizer The correct answer is “B” – leader. See next slide

4 The Nature of Leadership
An individual who is able to exert influence over other people to help achieve group or organizational goals

5 The Nature of Leadership
Personal Leadership Style The specific ways in which a manager chooses to influence others shapes the way that manager approaches the other principal tasks of management. The challenge is for managers at all levels to develop an effective personal management style. Leaders may delegate and support subordinates, while others are very authoritarian.

6 The Nature of Leadership
Distinction between managers and leaders Managers establish and implement procedures to ensure smooth functioning (performance) Leaders look to the future and chart (plan) the course (path) for the organization

7 Leadership Across Cultures
Leadership styles may vary among different countries or cultures. European managers tend to be more people-oriented than American or Japanese managers. Japanese managers are group-oriented, while U.S managers focuses more on profitability.

8 Sources of Managerial Power

9 Power: The Key to Leadership
Legitimate Power : The authority that a manager has by virtue (benefit) of his or her position in the firm. Example: the power to hire or fire employees.

10 Power: The Key to Leadership
Reward Power: The ability of a manager to give or withhold tangible and intangible rewards. Effective managers use reward power to signal to employees that they are doing a good job. Example: awarding pay raises or providing verbal praise for good performance.

11 Power: The Key to Leadership
Coercive Power: The ability of a manager to punish others. Examples: Oral warning pay cuts, and dismissal (firing) Limited in effectiveness and application; can have serious negative side effects.

12 Power: The Key to Leadership
Expert Power: Power that is based on special knowledge, skills, and expertise that the leader possesses. Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching manner

13 Power: The Key to Leadership
Referent Power قوة الاقتداء والإعجاب : Power that comes from coworkers’ respect and loyalty Possessed by managers who are likable and whom subordinates wish to use as a role model.

14 Sources of Power and Influences
قوة المركز الوظيفي + قوة الشخصية = مصادرة قوة القائد الرسمي قوة المكافأة قوة الإكراه القوة الشرعية قوة الخبرة القوة المرجعية This is a summary of Managerial Power—let’s first review Position Power

15 Empowerment: An Component in Modern Management
The process of giving employees at all levels in the organization the authority to make decisions, be responsible for their outcomes, improve quality, and cut costs.

16 Empowerment: An Component in Modern Management
Empowerment increases a manager’s ability to get things done Empowerment increases workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitment Empowerment gives managers more time to concentrate on their critical concerns

17 Leadership Models النظريات القيادية
Trait Model: نظريات السمات Attempt to identify personal characteristics that cause for effective leadership. Research shows that certain personal characteristics do appear to be connected to effective leadership. Many “traits” are the result of skills and knowledge and effective leaders do not necessarily possess all of these traits.

18 Leadership Models Behavioral Model النظريات السلوكية:
Identifies the two basic types of behavior that many leaders engaged in to influence their subordinates يفترض مؤيدوا هذه النظريات أن أنشطة القائد وأفعالة وتصرفاته أثناء العمل تشكل أسلوباً أو نمطاً عاماً لقيادته وهي التي تحدد فاعليته وليست سماته.

19 Leadership Models Behavioral Model:
1. Consideration : leaders show subordinates they trust, respect, and care about them Managers look out for the well-being of their subordinates Do what they can to help subordinates feel good and enjoy the work they perform Both behaviors are independent; managers can be high or low on both behaviors.

20 Leadership Models Behavioral Model:
2. Initiating structure: leaders take steps to make sure that work gets done, subordinates perform their work acceptably, and the organization is efficient and effective Managers assign tasks to groups and let subordinates know what is expected of them

21 Contingency Models of Leadership النظريات الموقفية أو الظرفية
What makes a manager an effective leader in one situation is not necessarily what that manager needs to be equally effective in another situation. Whether or not a manager is an effective leader is the result of the relationship between what the manager is like, what he does, and the situation in which leadership takes place

22 Contingency Models of Leadership
Fiedler’s Model: Effective leadership is depending on both the characteristics of the leader and of the situation. Leader style is the continuing, characteristic approach to leadership that a manager uses and does not readily (quickly) change.

23 Contingency Models of Leadership
Fiedler’s Model Relationship-oriented style: التوجه نحو العلاقات/ العاملين leaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them. Task-oriented style: التوجه نحو المهام / الانتاج leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level so the job gets done.

24 House’s Path-Goal Theory
A contingency model of leadership proposing that effective leaders can motivate subordinates to achieve goals by: Clearly identifying the outcomes that subordinates are trying to obtain from their jobs. Rewarding subordinates with these outcomes for high-performance and attainment of work goals Clarifying the paths leading to the attainment of work goals

25 Motivating with Path-Goal
Path-Goal identifies four leadership behaviors: Directive behaviors: set goals, assign tasks, show how to do things. Supportive behavior: look out for the worker’s best interest. Participative behavior: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them. Achievement-oriented behavior: Setting very challenging goals, believing in worker’s abilities.

26 Motivating with Path-Goal
Which behavior to be used depends on the nature of the subordinates and the kind of work they do

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