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Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

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1 Schermerhorn - Chapter 11
Chapter 11 Leading -- To Inspire Effort Leadership is one of the 4 Processes/Functions of Management Planning Ahead What is leadership? What are the important leadership models and theories? What are current directions in leadership development? What are the leadership “anchors” for dynamic times? Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

2 Schermerhorn - Chapter 11
What is Leadership? Leadership and Vision Leadership process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important organizational tasks Visionary Leadership someone who manages with a clear sense of the future Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

3 Schermerhorn - Chapter 11
What is Leadership? Meeting the challenges of visionary leadership: Challenge the process (TQM and Six Sigma, and Lean Processes constantly challenge how we perform work processes.) Show enthusiasm Help others to act (Cultures that encourage supporting of coworkers help others to act.) Set the example Celebrate achievements (another cultural component) Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

4 Schermerhorn - Chapter 11
Leadership is process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important organizational tasks. Leadership and Power Power is one way you could get others to work hard for an organization Power is ability to get someone else to do what you want them to do. Use of power is sometimes not inspiring. Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

5 Types of Position Power
Reward influence through rewards Coercive influence through punishment Legitimate influence through authority When a candidate gets elected they get legitimate power Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

6 Types of Personal Power
Expert influence through special expertise Referent influence through identification Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

7 Schermerhorn - Chapter 11
The types of power that are likely to inspire workers to accomplish organizational goals are: Legitimate power Referent power Expert poser Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

8 Empowering people will help to make them leaders in the future.
Leadership and Empowerment Empowerment when employees feel powerful they are more willing to make decisions and take action process through which mangers enable and help others to gain power and achieve influence within the organization. And therefore willing work towards the organization’s goals Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

9 How Leaders can Empower Others
Involve others in selecting their work assignments and tasks Create an environment of cooperation, information sharing, discussions, and shared ownership of goals. Encourage others to take initiative, make decisions, and use their knowledge. Find out what others think and let them help design solutions. Give others the freedom to put their ideas and solutions into practice. Recognize successes and encourage high performance. Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

10 Leadership Models and Theories
1st model -- Leadership Traits – Managers wanted to find leadership traits and once they did, they could check potential managers for these traits and hire those who had traits. desire to lead motivation honesty and integrity self-confidence intelligence and knowledge flexibility Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

11 Schermerhorn - Chapter 11
A 2nd approach to leadership has to do with how people act. Do they focus more on the task or more on concern for workers. Job-centered (task) type of leader. plans and defines work to be done assigns task responsibilities sets clear work standards urges task completion monitors results Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

12 Focus on Leadership Behaviors
People Concerns Focus acts warm and supportive develops social rapport with workers respects their feelings sensitive to their needs shows trust in them Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

13 Leadership Models and Theories
3rd Leadership theory is Fiedler’s Contingency Model good leadership depends on a match between leadership and situational demands least-preferred coworker scale (LPC) Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

14 Leadership Models and Theories
Fiedler’s Contingency Model Diagnosing situational control leader-member relations (good or poor) degree of task structure (high or low) amount of position (strong or weak) Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

15 Leadership Models and Theories
Fiedler’s Contingency Model Matching leadership style and situation task oriented leader is most successful very favorable (high control) very unfavorable (low control) relationship oriented leader is most successful moderate control situation Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

16 Leadership Models and Theories
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Model Leaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followers readiness how able, willing and confident followers are to perform tasks Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

17 Leadership Models and Theories
Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles Delegating Participating Selling Telling Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

18 Leadership Models and Theories
Matching Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles to Follower Readiness Delegating = high readiness Participating = moderate to high readiness Selling = low to moderate readiness Telling = low readiness Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

19 Leadership Models and Theories
House’s Path-Goal Leadership Theory directive supportive achievement-oriented participative Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

20 Leadership Models and Theories
Substitutes for Leadership Aspects of the work setting and the people involved that can reduce the need for a leader’s personal involvement Possible leadership substitutes: Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics Organizational characteristics Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

21 Leadership Models and Theories
Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory Helps leaders choose the method of decision making that best fits the nature of the problem situation. Alternative decision-making methods: Authority decision Consultative decision Group decision Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

22 Leadership Models and Theories
Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory Use group-oriented and participative decision-making methods when: The leader lacks sufficient information to solve a problem by himself/herself. The problem is unclear and help is needed to clarify the situation. Acceptance of the decision by others is important. Adequate time is available for true participation. Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

23 Leadership Models and Theories
Vroom-Jago leader-participation theory Use authority-oriented decision-making methods when: The leader has greater expertise to solve a problem. The leader is confident and capable of acting alone. Others are likely to accept the decision. Little or no time is available for discussion. Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

24 Directions in Leadership Development
What is Transformational Leadership? Use of charisma and related qualities to raise aspirations and shift people and organizational systems into new high-performance patterns Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

25 Directions in Leadership Development
Transactional Leadership Use of tasks, rewards and structures to help followers meet their needs while working to accomplish organizational objectives Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

26 Directions in Leadership Development
Look at the qualities of transformational leaders and decide if these qualities are distributed widely throughout the population. Qualities of Transformational Leaders vision charisma symbolism empowerment intellectual stimulation integrity Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

27 Directions in Leadership Development
Emotional Intelligence (EI) ability to understand and deal well with emotions at work threshold capabilities are technical or knowledge-based skills excellence in leadership depends on EI can be learned Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

28 Trends in Leadership Development
Gender and Leadership Women may be more prone to democratic and participative behaviors Men may be more transactional Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

29 Leadership Anchors in Dynamic Times
“Good Old-Fashioned” Leadership define and establish a sense of mission accept leadership as responsibility rather than rank earn and keep trust of others Schermerhorn - Chapter 11

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