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America at the Turn of the Century

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Presentation on theme: "America at the Turn of the Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 America at the Turn of the Century

2 World War I (US view) President Wilson- declares US neutrality, but the Lusitania is sunk in 1915 by Germany Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- used by the Germans to sink all ships near Europe, the U.S. complains Zimmerman telegram- letter Germany sends to Mexico asking them to attack the U.S. and they would help fight us, President Wilson declares war

3 Domestic Impact of WW I Women at work – 1st time ever
Selective Service Act (draft)– Random selection process so that all groups would be called into service Women at work – 1st time ever Daylight Savings Time- designed to save fuel Migration of workers – Mexicans and African-Americans took advantage of the open jobs in the north

4 Great Migration

5 Great Migration From , African-Americans migrate from the South to the North Reasons- Escape Jim Crow Laws in the South Jobs in factories in Northern cities during WWI Anger over not being treated equal after fighting for America in WWI

6 Espionage and Sedition Act
Espionage and Sedition Act – 20 year prison sentence for inciting rebellion in the armed forces or obstructing the draft. Sedition centered on anyone making disloyal or abusive remarks about the U.S. government

7 Eugene Debs Former leader of the AFL, now Socialist Party Presidential Candidate Jailed in Atlanta for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act, speaking out against recruiting

8 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Key ideas the President felt were needed to avoid another World War League of Nations- suggested as a peacekeeping organization Senate opposition- U.S. Senators reject the Treaty of Versailles in favor of isolationism, many believe the League would draw them into another European war

9 Prohibition 18th Amendment- banned the sale of alcohol in the United States Passed during the Progressive Era

10 Women’s Suffrage 19th Amendment- Gave women the right to vote.
Passed because women helped get the U.S. prepared during World War I

11 Communism Political belief in a one-party government ruled by a dictator There is no private ownership, all property is owned by the state People in the United States were afraid of this idea after World War I

12 Red Scare The fear of international communism, it was called the Red Scare because red was the color of the communist flag

13 Immigrant Restriction
The Quota System- This emerges as a reaction to the Red Scare sharply reduces European immigration 1924, European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890 Discriminates against southern, eastern Europeans Prohibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S., Japan Does not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enter

14 Henry Ford

15 Impact of the Automobile
Henry Ford- The “Father of Mass Production” Assembly Line- Parts flow down a conveyer belt, each part a small section of a greater machine Division of Labor- Each person on an assembly line does one job repeatedly until a machine is put together. Mass Production- Assembly Line allows for high production of goods at a cheap cost. Model T- millions are made and sold in America cheaply by Ford

16 Impact of Radio and Movies
Mass Media- the use of radio and movies created movie stars in the United States and made sport’s figures celebrities

17 Harlem Renaissance Harlem, New York – a wave of creativity celebrating African culture spreads across the country Langston Hughes – Notable author, poet, and play writer, Theme for English B Jazz Age – a form of music from New Orleans Key Jazz Artists – Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong

18 Irving Berlin and Tin Pan Alley
Irving Berlin- Russian born, American musical composer Berlin wrote over 1,000 songs most famous are “God Bless America”, “White Christmas” Tin Pan Alley- located in New York City, it was the center of music in the world for 30 years. Irving Berlin worked here for a time.

19 Causes of the Great Depression
Distribution of wealth- Wages had not risen with corporate profits. Over 70% of Americans were living below the poverty line. Stock Market Speculation- was seen as a get rich quick scheme. Millions of Americans poured in money expecting to get rich.

20 Causes of the Great Depression
“Playing the market”- People began guessing on stock prices this is called speculation. Buying on Margin- allowed people to borrow for the cost of the stock but only paying 10% of the price.

21 Causes of the Great Depression
Consumption- the working class and poor can’t afford the products made by companies Overproduction- Companies produced more than people could buy, so they cut wages to make money

22 Causes Great Depression
Government control- no regulation of businesses, led to high prices and low wages Farms- income declines as people can’t buy their crops, farmers lose their farms

23 The Great Depression Period of economic crisis lasting from 1929-1939
Economic crisis that caused 25% unemployment and worldwide poverty Banks Collapse- people panic and withdraw their money causing over 20% of all banks to close wiping out millions of savings accounts 23

24 President Hoover President at the beginning of the Great Depression, he believed it was the responsibility of the state and local governments to help not the federal government,

25 The Great Depression’s Effects
Soup kitchens- offer free or low-cost food Bread lines- people line up for food from charities, public agencies. Americans find this shameful to stand in lines and reject them.

26 The Great Depression’s Effects
African Americans, Latinos have higher unemployment, lower pay Shantytowns- settle-ments consisting of shacks, arise in cities, people dig through garbage, beg for food and money

27 Hoovervilles Unemployed and homeless people begin living in shantytowns named after President Hoover

28 Hoovervilles and Families
Hoover was blamed primarily for the depression People who could not pay their mortgage needed alternative housing Villages named “Hoovervilles” Family- some break under the strain of the depression 1. Men- commit suicide and go into depression, use to taking care of the family most can’t find jobs leave their families. 2. Women- find jobs sewing, maid service, resented by their husbands. 3. Children- poorly fed, schools close, poor health, teenagers leave home looking for jobs.

29 Psychological Effects of the Great Depression
1928–1932, suicide rate rises over 30% Admissions to state mental hospitals triple People give up health care, college, put off marriage, children Stigma of poverty doesn’t disappear; financial security becomes goal Many show great kindness to strangers Develop habit of saving and thriftiness

30 Dust Bowl Large dust storms hit the plain states scattering soil and destroying crops; no money for farmers Caused by farmers overproduction of crops and a drought in Middle America

31 The New Deal Program for reviving the economy during the Great Depression Begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt Made up of the three R’s – relief, recovery, reform 31

32 Tennessee Valley Authority
Created by Roosevelt as one of the major public works projects of the New Deal Built a system of dams for hydroelectricity in the south Created hundreds of jobs 32

33 Second New Deal These were the programs FDR started after the programs from the original New Deal failed to end the Great Depression

34 The Wagner Act The law established collective bargaining rights for workers Prevented companies from banning unions or firing union members

35 Social Security Act 1. Retirement for people 65 an older
One of the most important laws to pass has three parts 1. Retirement for people 65 an older 2. Unemployment insurance 3. Aid paid to families with disabilities and children

36 Eleanor Roosevelt Most active first lady in history – wrote newspaper columns, gave speeches, traveled the country Served as FDR’s social conscience She led the fight in America for Women’s, African-American and Human Rights

37 Huey Long Huey Long- A senator and former governor of Louisiana he was immensely popular in his home state and America He wants to help the poor by taxing the wealthy to provide new programs to help the poor get out of poverty He challenges FDR for the Democratic nomination but is killed by an assassin the same year

38 Court Packing Bill Supreme Court- strikes down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional “Court-packing bill”- Roosevelt proposes that the president be allowed to appoint a new justice for each member over Reaction- Congress and the Press are outraged at Roosevelt for trying to tamper with the system of checks and balances. Roosevelt backs off his idea

39 Neutrality Acts By 1938 the American government is controlled by Isolationists who pass the Neutrality Acts: Prohibits the sale of weapons and travel by Americans to countries at war Forbids the extension of trade or loans to nations at war

40 A. Phillip Randolph Civil Rights leader of the 30’s and 40’s Threatened a march on D.C. before WWII, forcing FDR to ban segregation in government jobs and the defense industry Forces President Truman to ban segregation in the military in 1948

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