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Foundations of Individual BehaviorChapter 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior
Biographical CharacteristicsPersonal characteristics—such as age, gender, and marital status—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability, Intellect, and IntelligenceAbility An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Physical Abilities Physical AbilitiesThe capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning Involves change Is relatively permanent Is acquired through experience © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Classical ConditioningTheories of Learning Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Key Concepts Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Learning (cont’d)Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Key Concepts Reflexive (unlearned) behavior Conditioned (learned) behavior Reinforcement © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Learning (cont’d)Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience. Key Concepts Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Learning (cont’d)Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of ReinforcementPositive reinforcement Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. Punishment Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. Extinction Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Schedules of ReinforcementContinuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Behavior ModificationOB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. Five Step Problem-Solving Model Identify critical behaviors Develop baseline data Identify behavioral consequences Develop and apply intervention Evaluate performance improvement © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
OB MOD Organizational ApplicationsWell Pay versus Sick Pay Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence. Employee Discipline The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. Self-management Reduces the need for external management control. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Organizational Behavior Individual Differences. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.2–22–2 Organizational Behavior.
© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter TWO.
Chapter 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior
Foundations of Individual Behavior
Psychology of Learning: Operant Conditioning
Chapter 6: Learning. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response. How.
Behavioral Theories Of Learning
How do we learn? l Classical Conditioning »Learn by experiencing two stimuli occurring close in time (They become associated or connected.) l Operant Conditioning.
Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter Two. Biographical Characteristics.
Motivating for High Performance
MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last week Were you able to buy the book? Have you gone to the website to download.
Foundations of individual behavior
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR W W W. P R E N H A L L. C O M / R O B B I N S T E N T H E D I T I O N.
5-1 ©2005 Prentice Hall 5 Learning and Creativity Chapter 5 Learning and Creativity.
O r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n.
Conditioning and Learning Processes Chapter Process by which a neutral stimulus becomes capable of eliciting a response because it was repeatedly.
Chapter 21 Foundations of Individual Behavior. Chapter 22 Learning Objectives Define key biographical characteristics Identify two types of ability Shape.
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