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MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last week Were you able to buy the book? Have you gone to the website to download.

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Presentation on theme: "MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last week Were you able to buy the book? Have you gone to the website to download."— Presentation transcript:

1 MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last week Were you able to buy the book? Have you gone to the website to download the syllabus? Any questions? Comments? Are there any questions from last week’s class? Any additional administrative items of importance? Anything else? Let’s get started!

2 Introduction - Organizational Behavior
What types of topics will we cover in this course? Job satisfaction Personality traits and work performance Motivation Teamwork Leadership Power and politics HR policies and practices

3 Chapter 1 What is Organizational Behavior?

4 What Do Managers Do? Get things done through other people
Make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals Do their work in an organization

5 Management Functions Planning Organizing Leading Controlling

6 Management Skills Technical Skills:
The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise Human Skills: The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. PEOPLE SKILLS ARE CRITICAL FOR MANAGERS!!! Conceptual Skills: The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

7 “Effective” vs. “Successful” Managers….

8 So….What is Organizational Behavior?

9 There Are Few Absolutes in OB
Contingency Variables x y

10 Challenges and Opportunity for OB
Responding to Globalization Managing Workforce Diversity Improving Quality and Productivity Responding to the Labor Shortage Improving Customer Service

11 Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d)
Improving People Skills Empowering People Stimulation Innovation and Change Coping with “Temporariness” Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Improving Ethical Behavior

12 The Dependent Variables
y x

13 Key Examples of Dependent Variables

14 The Dependent Variables (cont’d)

15 The Dependent Variables (cont’d)

16 The Dependent Variables (cont’d)

17 The Independent Variables
Individual-Level Variables: ability, IQ, personality, etc Organization System-Level Variables: org culture, HR Group-Level Variables: Teamwork, leadership, etc

18 SUMMARY Managers need to develop their interpersonal (people skills) to be effective in their jobs. OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization. OB focuses on improving productivity, employee job satisfaction, citizenship behavior and reducing absenteeism and turnover. OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior. OB recognizes and helps managers to improve their people skills and to see the value of workforce diversity and practices. It also seeks to improve organizations and help managers cope with the many changes faced in today’s workplace.

19 Chapter 2: Foundations of Individual Behavior

20 Individuals: Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, race and tenure—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records

21 Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence
An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics

22 Job’s Ability Requirements
The Ability-Job Fit Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Job’s Ability Requirements

23 Part 2 of Chapter 2 --- Learning
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience Learning Involves change Is relatively permanent Is acquired through experience

24 Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement Providing a reward for a desired behavior Negative reinforcement Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs

25 Theories of Learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning
Social-learning theory Shaping

26 Reinforcement Punishment Extinction
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (NOTE: THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT) Extinction Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation

27 Shaping Behavior Shaping: Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.

28 Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated

29 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform **TIME** intervals Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses

30 Intermittent Reinforcement

31 Intermittent Reinforcement

32 Schedules of Reinforcement

33 Chapter 3 – What are attitudes?
Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

34 Measuring the A-B Relationship
Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.

35 Self-Perception Theory
Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. B A ! And,

36 Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction
A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment)

37 Types of Attitudes, cont’d
Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being Employee Engagement An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization

38 An Application: Attitude Surveys
Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization

39 Attitudes and Workforce Diversity
Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions Volunteer work in community and social service centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds

40 Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction
Single global rating Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? In general, people are satisfied with their jobs. Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities

41 Expressing Dissatisfaction
Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organization Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen

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