MBA 204 – Week 2 Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last week Were you able to buy the book? Have you gone to the website to download.
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1 MBA 204 – Week 2Welcome back! Please let me know if you were not here last weekWere you able to buy the book?Have you gone to the website to download the syllabus? Any questions? Comments?Are there any questions from last week’s class?Any additional administrative items of importance?Anything else? Let’s get started!
2 Introduction - Organizational Behavior What types of topics will we cover in this course?Job satisfactionPersonality traits and work performanceMotivationTeamworkLeadershipPower and politicsHR policies and practices
6 Management Skills Technical Skills: The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertiseHuman Skills:The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. PEOPLE SKILLS ARE CRITICAL FOR MANAGERS!!!Conceptual Skills:The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations
9 There Are Few Absolutes in OB Contingency Variablesxy
10 Challenges and Opportunity for OB Responding to GlobalizationManaging Workforce DiversityImproving Quality and ProductivityResponding to the Labor ShortageImproving Customer Service
11 Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Improving People SkillsEmpowering PeopleStimulation Innovation and ChangeCoping with “Temporariness”Working in Networked OrganizationsHelping Employees Balance Work/Life ConflictsImproving Ethical Behavior
18 SUMMARYManagers need to develop their interpersonal (people skills) to be effective in their jobs.OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization.OB focuses on improving productivity, employee job satisfaction, citizenship behavior and reducing absenteeism and turnover.OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behavior.OB recognizes and helps managers to improve their people skills and to see the value of workforce diversity and practices. It also seeks to improve organizations and help managers cope with the many changes faced in today’s workplace.
20 Individuals: Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, race and tenure—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records
21 Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a jobIntellectual AbilityThe capacity to do mental activitiesPhysical AbilitiesThe capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics
23 Part 2 of Chapter 2 --- Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experienceLearningInvolves changeIs relatively permanentIs acquired through experience
24 Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcementProviding a reward for a desired behaviorNegative reinforcementRemoving an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs
25 Theories of Learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social-learning theoryShaping
26 Reinforcement Punishment Extinction Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior (NOTE: THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT)ExtinctionWithholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation
27 Shaping BehaviorShaping: Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired responseKey ConceptsReinforcement is required to change behavior.Some rewards are more effective than others.The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
28 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous ReinforcementA desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstratedIntermittent ReinforcementA desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated
29 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Interval ScheduleRewards are spaced at uniform **TIME** intervalsVariable-Interval ScheduleRewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses
33 Chapter 3 – What are attitudes? Cognitive ComponentThe opinion or belief segment of an attitudeAttitudesEvaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or eventsAffective ComponentThe emotional or feeling segment of an attitudeBehavioral ComponentAn intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
34 Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account.
35 Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.BA !And,
36 Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her jobJob InvolvementIdentifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worthOrganizational CommitmentIdentifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment)
37 Types of Attitudes, cont’d Perceived Organizational Support (POS)Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-beingEmployee EngagementAn individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization
38 An Application: Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization
39 Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity:Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussionsVolunteer work in community and social service centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds
40 Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction Single global ratingSummation scoreHow Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?In general, people are satisfied with their jobs.Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities
41 Expressing Dissatisfaction ExitBehavior directed toward leaving the organizationVoiceActive and constructive attempts to improve conditionsLoyaltyPassively waiting for conditions to improveNeglectAllowing conditions to worsen