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States of Consciousness

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Presentation on theme: "States of Consciousness"— Presentation transcript:

1 States of Consciousness

2 “And then suddenly, I saw this bright light at the end of the tunnel.”

3 Summary Outline A. Sleep and Dreaming B. Hypnosis
C. Psychoactive Drug Affects

4 A. Sleep and Dreaming All animals need to sleep

5 EEG and sleep

6 EEG Recordings Frequency How fast ups and downs occur Amplitude
Distance between a peak and a trough

7 Stages of Sleep

8 Unit V. States of Consciousness

9 Characteristics of EEG sleep stages
Frequency (cycles / second) Amplitude Wave Form Stage I 4 - 8 50-100 Theta Waves Stage II 8 - 15 50-150 Spindle Waves 2 - 4 Slow waves plus splindles Stage IV Delta Unit V. States of Consciousness

10 Need for Sleep Preservation and Protection Theory
Sleep Preserves energy Stay out of harm’s way during dangerous or unproductive parts of the day

11 Restorative Theory of Sleep
Body needs to recovery from the day Muscles and brain relax during sleep as if resting up Sleep Deprivation Complete sleep deprivation prevents healing in rats, then kills them Circadian Rhythms Daily cycle of energy and relaxtion

12 Functions of Sleep Lowering metabolic rate conserves energy
Reduces the risk of thermal disequilibrium during the coldest part of the day New learning processes are inactivated which allows us to: Reorganize and more efficiently store the information already in the brain

13 Functions of sleep Homeostasis (constancy) Need for Alertness
Fluctuates despite our best efforts Occasionally fails completely Sleep helps to restore Heteroplasticity (capacity to change in response to changing circumstances) Information processing

14 Replenishment of Neurotransmitters
During REM sleep Most neurons decrease activity slightly in sleep A small minority of neurons cease firing altogether Aminergic Neurons Norepinephrine- and Serotonin-releasing neurons Located in the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei Ach has a concurrent increase during REM sleep

15 Neuronal Replenishment theory suggest that:
Norepinephrine and serotonin are involved in alertness The producing neurons are inactive during REM sleep The brain produces these transmitters during sleep Which explains the refreshed feelings when we awake

16 Dreaming Dreams: Content, Lucid Dreaming Meaning of Dreams
Wish fulfillment (Freud) Activation-synthesis (Hobson & McCarley) Information Processing, Problem-Solving Daydreams and Fantasies

17 Sleep Disorders Insomnia Narcolepsy Sleep apnea Somnambulism

18 Sleep and Dreaming Activities Neuroscience for Kids
Activity 1: Keep a "SLOG" (Sleep Log) Dream Journal Worksheet Sleep Journal Worksheet Activity 2: Be an REM Detective Activity 3: Drop off or Drift off? Activity 4: Sleep Latency

19 B. Hypnosis Hypnotic susceptibility Age regression
Posthypnotic suggestion Posthypnotic amnesia Meditation

20 Theories of Hypnosis: Deep relaxation Role playing State theory
Dissociation theory

21 C. Psychoactive Drug Affects
Agonists (Mimic) Antagonists (Block)

22 Abuse Drug Use / Drug Abuse / Dependence Tolerance Withdrawal
Psychological dependence Physical dependence Addiction Tolerance Withdrawal

23 Indicators of severity
Age Early initiation of drug use is a predictor Solitary Drug Use Solitary use is more indicative than social use Means of Acquiring Drugs Purchasing from Strangers Users often say they share What was given in return?

24 Motivation for Drug Use
Reduce stress / Build self-esteem Rebelliousness Peer pressure / Desire to be sociable Use of Multiple Drugs Behavior While Under the Influence of Drugs Associated with traffic violations, pranks, shoplifting, fights

25 Class Effects Opiates / Narcotics Heroin Morphine Codeine Opiods
Depressants Alcohol Sedatives Barbiturates Tranquilizer Stimulants Caffeine Amphetamines Cocaine Nicotine Psychedelics LSD Mescaline Marijuana Hashish Phencyclidine

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