Presentation on theme: "SATL IN PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS:"— Presentation transcript:
1 SATL IN PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS: “SYSTEMIC PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS” [SPCE]Ameen F. M. FahmyFaculty of Science, Department of Chemistry,Ain shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt1ST PS-SATLC , Karachi PakistanNov.19-29, 2008
2 Pungente, and Badger (2003) stated that the primary goal when teaching introductory organic chemistry is to take students beyond the simple cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension using skills of synthesis and analysis – rather than rote memory.Fahmy and Lagowski have designed, implemented, and evaluated the systemic approach to teaching and learning chemistry (SATLC) Since (1998) .The use of systemics, in our view, will help students to understand interrelationships between concepts in a greater context.
3 SATL help students in development of their mental framework with higher – level of cognitive processes such as analysis and synthesis, which is very important requirement in the learning of our chemistry students.By "systemic" we mean an arrangement of concepts or issues through interacting systems in which all relationships between concepts and issues are made, clear up front, to the teachers and learners.
4 Fig: 1a: Linear representation of concepts Fig: 1b: systemic representation of concepts
5 Data Student Sample Duration / Date A list of SATL studies is given in (Table I). All of these studies required the creation of new student learning materials, as well as the corresponding teacher-oriented materials.Table (1):Presented at the 16th ICCE, Budapest, Hungry, (August, 2000).One Semester Course: (16 Lects - 32hrs). During the academic years (1998/ / /2001).SATL- Aliphatic Chemistry. (Text book)Presented at the 3ed Arab conference on SATL (April, 2003).(15 Lessons - Three Weeks)OctSATL- Classification of ElementsPresented at the 15th ICCE, Cairo, Egypt, (August, 1998).(9 Lessons Two weeks)March 1998.SATL- Carboxylic acids and their derivatives (Unit)DataDuration / DateTitle of SATLC MaterialUniversity Level - Pre-Pharmacy. - Second year, Faculty of Science.Pre-University - Secondary School (2nd Grade).Student Sample
6 Presented at the 7th ISICHC, Alex., Egypt (March, 2000). (10 Lects hrs). During the academic years: (1999/ /2001).SATL- Heterocyclic Chemistry. (Text book)- Third year, Faculty of Science.In preparationOne Semester Course:(16 Lects-32 hrs). During academic years( ).( )SATL- Aromatic Chemistry (Text book) (12)- Second year, Faculty of Science.Presented at the 17th ICCE Beijing(August 2002)One Semester Lab Course 24hrs (2hr/week)During academic year ( ).From SATL- to Benign Analysis- First yearFaculty of ScienceMore SATL chemistry courses were produced by the Science Education Center at Ain Shams University, which are still under experimentation in different universities and school settings.
8 (All chemical relations are known) Educational standards We started teaching of any course by Systemic diagram (SD0) that has determined the starting point of the course, and we ended the course with a final systemic diagram (SDf) and between both we crossover several Systemics (SD1, SD2,…..)SD0SDfSD2SD1Stage (1)Stage (2)Stage (3)(maximum Unknownchemical relation)(All chemical relations are known)(?)()Educational standardsand objectivesFig (3): Systemic teaching strategy
9 1- SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS PRE-COLLEGE COURSESOur experiments about the usefulness of SATL to learning Chemistry at the pre-college level was conducted in the Cairo and Giza school districts.1- SATL-CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTSFifteen SATL based lessons in inorganic chemistry taught over a three - week period were presented to a total 130 students. The achievement of these students was then compared with 79 students taught the same material using standard (linear) method.The details of the transformation of the linear approach to the corresponding systemic closed concept cluster were presentedThe periodicity of the properties within the horizontal periods is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 4), and within the vertical groups is illustrated by the diagram in (Figure 7).
10 Non-metallic property By increasing the atomic number in periods ElectronegativityAtomic radiusElectronaffinityIonization energyNon-metallic propertyMetallic propertyAcidic propertyBasicpropertyBy increasing the atomic number in periods?Figure (4): periodicity of properties of the elements within the periods
11 The previous diagrams of periods represent linear separated chemical relations between the atomic number and Atomic radius – Ionization energy - electron affinity - electronegativity - metallic and non-metallic properties - basic and acidic properties.The periodicity of the properties through the periods can be illustrated systemically by changing the diagram in Figure (4) to systemic diagram (SD1-P) Figure (5).
12 By increasing atomic number within the periods ElectronegativityAmphoteric propertyMetallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic propertyAcidic propertyAtomic radiusBy increasing atomic number within the periods3?571114981216151820121017191346Non-metallic propertyFigure (5): Systemic Diagram (SD1 - P) for the periodicity of propertiesof elements within periods
13 Figure (6): Systemic Diagram (SD2 - P) for the periodicity of the After study of the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify systemic diagrams (SD1-P) Figure (5) to (SD2-P) Figure (6), for periods.ElectronegativityAmphoteric propertyMetallic propertyNon-metallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic propertyAcidic propertyAtomic radiusBy increasing atomic number within the periods3571114981216151820121017191346The oxidation number for element in its oxide212223Figure (6): Systemic Diagram (SD2 - P) for the periodicity of theProperties for the elements within periods
14 Non-metallic property By increasing the Atomic number in groups Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groupsAtomic radiusElectron affinityIonization energyNon-metallic propertyMetallic propertyAcidic propertyBasic propertyBy increasing the Atomic number in groups?ElectronegativityFigure (7): Periodicity of the properties of the elements within the groups represents linear separate relations:
15 Non-metallic property By increasing Atomic number within the groups Also the periodicity of the properties within groups can by illustrated systemically be changing Figure (7) to systemic diagram (SD1-G) Figure(8).ElectronegativityMetallic PropertyNon-metallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic PropertyAcidic propertyHXAtomic radiusBy increasing Atomic number within the groups3?571114981216151820191710132146Figure (8): Systemic Diagram (SD1 - G) for the periodicity of propertiesof the elements within groups
16 Non-metallic property By increasing Atomic number within the groups After study the periodicity of physical and chemical properties of the elements we can modify (SD1-G) Figure (8) to (SD2-G) Figure (9).ElectronegativityMetallic PropertyNon-metallic propertyIonization energyElectron affinityBasic PropertyAcidic propertyHXAtomic radiusBy increasing Atomic number within the groups3571114981216151820191710132146Figure (9): Systemic Diagram (SD2 - G) for the periodicity of the properties of elements within groups
17 LINEAR AND SYSTEMIC PERIODS In the periodic table the graduation in properties are studied in a linear method from left to right increasing or decreasing.e.g.: In period (2) The linear graduation of the properties in the second period starting from lithium to Neon increasing or decreasing.LiBeBCNOFNeLinear Period (2)
18 But in systemic period the graduation in the properties are studied systemically starting from any element in the period to any other element as shown in the Figure (10).NBeBCOFNe?LiFigure (10): Systemic period (2)lt shows increasing or decreasing in the given property on moving from one element to another through the systemic period.
19 O F Ne Li Be B C N -58.5 +66 -29 -121 +31 -142 -332 +99 The systemic period is characterized from the linear period in the following:Find a relation between any element of the period and all the other elements.Solve the abnormality in the periodicity of some of the properties. Because it finds the relation between each element and the next element in a certain property till the end of the period.eg:The electron affinity increases by increasing atomic number with the exception of Beryllium and nitrogen and Neon.LiBeBCNOFNe-58.5+66-29-121+31-142-332+99(abnormal)
20 N +31 Be +66 B -29 C -121 O -142 Ne +99 increases Li -58.5 decreases In the case of systemic approach the relation takes place between any two elements from the point of electron affinity as shown in Figure (11).N+31Be+66B-29C-121O-142F-332Ne+99increasesLi-58.5decreasesFigure (11): Periodicity of electron affinity in systemic period (2)
21 Fig(12): systemic period Notice: As the (-ve) value increases the amount of energy released increases so the electron affinity increases.Generally the systemic period (SD-P) can be drawn as follow.EG VS2P3EG IIS2EG IIIS2P1EG IVS2P2EG VIS2P4EG VIIS2P5EG VIIIS2P6EGIS1?E = element G = group(?) = Increasing ordecreasingFig(12): systemic period
22 LINEAR AND SYSTEMIC GROUPS The graduation in the properties through groups in the periodic table are studied in linearity from top to bottom as shown in Figure (13) ))EP2EP3EP4Increasing Or decreasingEP5EP6E = elementEP7P = periodEP1Figure (13): Linear Group
23 ? EP3 EP4 EP5 EP6 EP7 EP1 EP2 Figure (14): Systemic Group In systemic group the graduation in the properties are to be studied systematically. Starting from any element to another. It can be represented by the following systemic diagram (SD-G) Fig (14).EP3EP4EP5EP6EP7?EP1EP2(?) = Increasing or decreasingFigure (14): Systemic GroupThe characteristics of systemic groups are the same as systemic periods
24 3- Electronegativity increases ¨ Example: systemic group -1KRbCsFrLiNa(a.r.) increases.Prop. (2-3) decreases1- (a.r.) decreases.2- (I.P.) increases.3- Electronegativity increasesFigure (15): Periodicity of Properties of (atomic radius - Ionization potential - Electronegativity) through systemic group (SG-1).The results, of experimentation indicate that a greater fraction of students exposed to systemic techniques in the experimental group, achieved at a higher level than did the control group taught by linear techniques. The overall results are summarized in Figures (16 and 17).
25 Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" 47152110088569220406080120BeforeAfterEltabary Roxy "boys"Nabawia Mosa"girls"Gamal Abedel Naser "girls"all the exp.(group)Figure 16: Percent of students in the experimental groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indicate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the systemic intervention period
26 Gamal Abedel Naser "girls" 8756413394610203040506070BeforeAfterEltabary Roxy "boys"Nabawia Mosa"girls"Gamal Abedel Naser "girls"all the control(group)Figure 17: Percent of students in the control groups who succeeded (achieved at a 50% or higher level). The bars indiate a 50% or greater achievement rate before and after the linear intervention period.
27 The results from the pre-university experiment point to a number of conclusions that stem from the qualitative data from surveys of teachers and students, and from anecdotal evidence.Implementing the systemic approach for teaching and learning using two units of general chemistry within the course has no negative effects on the ability of the students to continue their linear study of the remainder of the course using the linear approach.Teachers feedback indicated that the systemic approach seemed to be beneficial when the students in the experimental group returned to learning using the conventional linear approach.Teachers from different experiences, and ages can be trained to teach by the systemic approach in a short period of time with sufficient training.After the experiment both teachers and learners retain their understanding of SATL techniques and continue to use them.
28 CONCLUSION*SATLC improved the students ability to view the chemistry from a more global perspective.*SATLC helps the students to develop their own mental framework at higher-level cognitive processes such as application, analysis, and synthesis.*SATLC increases students ability to learn subject matter in a greater context.*SATLC increases the ability of students to think globally.
29 Literature (1) Michael, P., Badger R., J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80, 779. (2) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J., The use of Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning for 21st Century, J pure Appl. 1999, [15th ICCE, Cairo, August 1998].(3) Fahmy, A. F. M., Hamza, M. A., Medien, H. A. A., Hanna, W. G., Abdel-Sabour, M. : and Lagowski, J.J., From a Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Chemistry (SATLC) to Benign Analysis, Chinese J.Chem. Edu. 2002, 23(12),12 [17th ICCE, Beijing, August 2002].(4) Fahmy, A. F. M., Lagowski, J. J; Systemic Reform in Chemical Education An International Perspective, J. Chem. Edu. 2003, 80 (9), 1078.(5) Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., Using SATL Techniques to Assess Student Achievement, [18th ICCE, Istanbul Turkey, 3-8, August 2004].(6) Fahmy, A.F. M., Lagowski, J. J., Systemic multiple choice questions (SMCQs) in Chemistry [19th ICCE, Seoul, South Korea, August 2006].
30 (7) Fahmy, A. F. M. , El-Shahaat, M. F. , and Saied, A (7) Fahmy, A. F. M., El-Shahaat, M. F., and Saied, A., International Workshop on SATLC, Cairo, Egypt, April (2003)(8) Fahmy, A.F.M., Lagowski, J.J.; “Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aliphatic Chemistry”; Modern Arab Establishment for printing, publishing; Cairo, Egypt (2000)(9) Fahmy A. F. M., El-Hashash M., “Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Heterocyclic Chemistry”. Science Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (1999)(10) Fahmy A. F. M., Hashem, A. I., and Kandil, N. G.; Systemic Approach in Teaching and Learning Aromatic Chemistry. Science, Education Center, Cairo, Egypt (2000)
31 Research GroupProf. Dr. Lagowski, J. J. (USA) (Founder)Prof. Dr. El-Shahat, M. T. (Egypt)Prof. Dr. Abdel – Sabour, M. (Egypt) ) Mrs. Said, A. (Egypt