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Literacy Block Others Parts of the Day 90 Min. Reading Block

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1 Literacy Block Others Parts of the Day 90 Min. Reading Block
30 Min. Writing Block Responding to Reading Direct Instruction on Fluency, Phonics and Vocabulary Emphasis on Comprehension Written Responses and the structures for them Learning the Writing Process Learning How to Edit Penmanship 6 Trait Direct Instruction and practice of writing frame (Step Up) Writing Research Papers Application to the Content

2 Written Responses within Reading Instruction
In 1981 a report by the National Assessment of Educational Progress showed that 85% of all 13 year olds can correctly complete a multiple choice test of comprehension. But only 15% could write an acceptable sentence summarizing a paragraph they had read. Currently our building and district WASL scores reflect this same pattern. Instruction on how to find meaning in longer passages or to summarize an entire story is a hit or miss opportunity. Our focus, the reason to read is to gain deeper understanding. This can only be done through with systematic instruction. Within our own district from our survey of our principals, there is a wide variety and level of instruction of writing and its use as a response to reading. Activity: Look at the released WASL items for your school and discuss the trends you see on multiple choice, short answer and extended answer responses. Building Bridges to Deeper Comprehension

3 “A failure to recognize that composing and comprehending are process-oriented thinking skills which are basically interrelated… impedes our efforts not only to teach children to read and write, but our efforts to teach them how to think.” (Squire, 1983, p.581) Classrooms need to become the place where learners can develop understanding of text/reading through their expertise as writers and visa versa. Activity COMPARISION OF READING AND WRITING PROCESSES Organize staff into groups of 4 using playing cards Have them list on chart paper a comparison of what readers and writers do during: Pre reading/ Prewriting Reading, rereading/ drafting, editing, revising After reading/ publishing The next slides show a summary of these ideas. Our instruction must encourage meaning making whether it be through reading, writing. For just as speaking and listening are interrelated so are the areas of reading and writing.



6 Understanding Why Writing Improves Comprehension
Helps clarify, organize and refine thoughts (Wells,1993,Brookes, 1998) Involves the construction of meaning Purposeful and structural in shaping the learner’s experience (Tierney &Pearson, 1983) Builds links between: Text Text Text World Text Self When a reader puts themselves in the place of the author they can observe style, use of conventions and organization to define meaning. Both readers and writers compose meaning. Predicting in reading and prewriting both help the learner to form a schema of what is to come. Responding to text and revising or publishing help the learner to synthesis the experience and imbed it in their memory. As teachers we do a great deal of oral reflection such as “Remember when….” Oral reflection of these connections are great ways to introduce, model and scaffold the learning for our students. By providing students with opportunities to write about these connections we gain an understanding and informal assessment of their comprehension. Personalize your own example of an oral reflection in the space above.

7 Understanding Why Writing Improves Comprehension
Writers respond to text as they compose Readers need to respond to what they are reading to interpret text Writing expresses your own personal insight into a text In a 1984 study essay writing was found to be more beneficial that answering question or taking notes regardless of the students’ prior knowledge. (Newell, 1984) When students took notes or responded to study questions they spent all their effort on finding the exact answer to limited or specific information from the text. Essay writing or extended written responses give students an opportunity to make connections, expanding comprehension . Research also has reflected on the effects of reading and writing on thinking and how different types of writing tasks shape thinking and learning. There are some instructional targets that loan themselves to short answer for example: What is the setting of the story. Others loan themselves to extended responses: How does the setting impact the main character in this story. Langer & Flihan, 2000

8 Using Written Responses to Enhance the Understanding of Text
Pair writing activities with decoding, vocabulary, fluency and comprehension for higher level of understanding. Use explicit and direct instruction to introduce task, product or genre. Limit instruction of genre to narrative, expository, persuasive. - Writing is part of the 90 minute reading block as a response to a passage or text. WRITING INSTRCUTION needs to be outside the reading block and given its own systematic, intentional instruction. - Successful instruction beings in the earliest grades. In K teacher modeling and shared writing are the goal. Written responses to text need structure and purpose. However this is not your only instructional time for writing. - Instruction during the reading block should be focused on these areas. For example poetry, report, journal or letter writing are best supported during the writing instruction. Writing instruction outside the 90 minute block should encompass broad genres and styles.The limitations listed above are for maintaining a focus for responses to text during the reading instruction.

9 Using Written Responses to Enhance the Understanding of Text
Have students respond or reflect on text through written assignments. Use comparisons of: text to text text to self text to world Use writing to gain deeper understanding of the text. Focus on informational summaries, personal responses to literature and quality responses to questions. PERSONALIZE IT! Give a brief example of each Text to Text Text to World Text to Self - There are a broad array of responses to literature we could have looked at. To follow up on our comprehension we choose to look at ways to finish our comprehension activities introduced in the earlier module. -Journal writing has been one of those over used, least instructed activities for written responses to text. Any writing in response to text needs to be specific no matter shat form. The writing should be a reflection of the instructional target in order to provide an informal assessment of a student’s comprehension of the text. Langer & Flihan, 2000

10 Types of Written Responses
Dictation- sound, word or simple sentence dictation Simple answers- one to two words or a short sentence Short answer- is used when the question needs a simple concise response. Extended answer- used for more detailed explanations or comparison of text The four types of written responses most commonly used in reading instruction are: Dictation, simple answers, short answer and extended answer. Dictation would be used in rehearsing or reinforcing spelling or vocabulary words. Simple and short answer responses will provide you with a limited answer to very specific questions. They are best used for recall of facts and or events. Extended written responses are the most effective at gaining a snapshot of student understanding of the over all passage or text.

11 Know Your Instructional Target!
Story Target Target Instructional targets are the key leanings for a student in a specific content area. Provided in the handouts are Instructional targets based on the EALR’s. When you begin your planning for a story selection you need to follow these steps. First choose the story. Then match which targets best fit this story. Then use your Instructional Targets to choose the style and focus of your questions and responses. Model this to staff with a story from your reading series or a picture book. Target Strategies

12 Reading & Writing Strategies
We know that effective learning occurs “Before, During & After” reading a selection. With the Reading & Writing Strategies the purpose is to guide students in constructing, extending and examining meaning as they reflect on what they have read.

13 Instructional Framework
Graphic organizers Questioning Fast phrases Sticky notes Word maps Content charts After Summarizing Oral partner reading Reteach words During Predicting events in story Model fluent reading Cold timings Word relatedness Illustrate & associate Before Writing Compre-hension Fluency Vocabulary Group writing activity on predictions Get the Gist Review predictions This framework provides the audience with a visual representation of the prior three modules (Vocabulary, Fluency & Comprehension) and an example of the various activities that occur before, during and after the reading selection. It also previews the Writing activities that will be the focus of the presentation. Written response to G.O. and QAR

The two Reading and Writing strategies that will be addressed are Summarizing and Questioning. In the comprehension module specific activities were selected which were designed to enhance the student’s learning of what had been read. How writing can be used to build deeper understanding will be the focus of this module. At this time allow the audience to place sticky notes in their comprehension binders by providing the page numbers for the different strategies which we will be focusing on during the presentation. These are all in the Handouts section in the binder. Summarizing p. 60 Questioning p. 51 Activity; Use the Comprehension and Fluency binder for this activity. Have 1’s give a “teacher friendly” description of the strategy and one activity they do that represents it to their partner what Summarizing is and then 2’s will do the same with Questioning.

15 Summarizing Story Frames Get The Gist Graphic Organizers
Narrative and Expository Summarizing is the ability to identify the most central and important ideas. Through summarizing students are able to understand how ideas in different texts are related. It also improves organizational skills and brings about an awareness of text structures. The three most effective summarizing activities are “Story Frames, Get the Gist & Graphic Organizers.” These activities will be further discussed individually and whether they are more appropriate for Narrative or Expository text. At this time provide the audience with the page numbers so that they can place a sticky note in the Handout section of their binders for quick reference. Story frames pp Get the Gist pp Activity: Use the Comprehension and Fluency binder for this activity. Have 1’s give a “teacher friendly” description to 2’s what Story Frames are and then 2’s will do the same with “Get The Gist”.

16 Story Frames Provides written language structure
Great for the primary grades (1-2) Benefits ELL & Special Ed students Types: Character analysis Plot summary Setting Story problem Story frames are useful instructional tools for focusing on the structure of a text. They can also be used to assess awareness of text organizational patterns. These frames will also assist students with writing about what they’ve already read. The four types of frames are: character analysis, plot summary, setting and story problem. Activity: Model 1of the 4 frames listed. (I DO) As a group do a different frame. (WE DO) School groups choose one of the remaining frames to do independently. (YOU DO) Share completed frames to whole group.

17 Get The Gist Effective summarizing strategy.
Improves understanding and memory of reading material. Students monitor their comprehension by summarizing key information. This is a review of the key components of the Get The Gist strategy. Read and discuss each bullet. This is a very good “During Reading” strategy for expository text as it assists students with comprehension. When presenting this strategy to your audience first provide them with a “teacher friendly” definition, for example: “Students read a short passage (a paragraph or two) and then in 10 words or less explain what the main idea is”. Then demonstrate how to do the strategy by using the example provided in the Comprehension Binder.

18 Graphic Organizers Graphically represented ideas & relations.
Illustrate concepts and interrelationships among concepts in a text using diagrams or pictures. Reading tools used to organize, clarify and interpret what is being read. A means of getting to end, not the end result. Graphic organizers arrange details in a visual form, which can make them easier to understand and remember. They help students focus on text structure and sort through and record information. Once again the purpose of graphic organizers is to provide schema to the students so that their comprehension of a text can reach a deeper understanding. It is important to differentiate between using graphic organizers as a tool to build comprehension and having graphic organizers be the end product.

19 Responses To Graphic Organizers
Express graphically represented ideas & concepts and their relationships in writing. Utilizing the information gained from the organizer to construct a reflective thought in writing. Written response’s framework and/or structure should reflect the nature of the graphic organizer. The intent of this slide is to demonstrate how to take the information represented on a graphic organizer and reflect it in a written response. When presenting this information discuss the importance of how graphic organizers are tools that are a means of getting to the end and not necessarily the end result itself.

20 Graphic Organizers For Narrative Text
Story Elements Chart (p. 31) Story Structure/Grammar Map (p. 45) Find & Connect The Features Chart (pp ) Think Links (pp ) Compare And Contrast (p. 19) The five organizers represent a story’s information in a clear manner and work best for narrative texts. These organizers are from the comprehension module and a brief review of how they are best utilized might be necessary. Model the Compare and Contrast organizer. Activity: Use the Comprehension and Fluency binder for this activity. Have audience get into “card groups” and divide up the first four graphic organizers. They are to provide a “teacher friendly” explanation of what the organizer is and which grade level it would be appropriate to use.

21 Graphic Organizers For Expository Text
Main Idea Chart (p. 23) Note Taking Organizer (p. 26) Mind Map (p. 29) Venn Diagram The four organizers that are ideal for an expository text are listed on the slide. Explain that the nature of expository texts is to provide factual information. These strategies are effective in helping the students organize and decipher the important information. Activity: Use the Port of Tacoma 3rd Grade Social Studies book. In the appendix choose a target for instruction that matches the story. Have small groups select 1 of the 4 graphic organizers for expository text. Groups need to complete the organizer. Groups need to pose a question for a written response and record it on their sheet. Then they show a student writing example at the bottom generated from the G.O. Groups will share organizers to whole group.

22 Questioning Types-short answer or extended response.
Higher level type of questions Provide students with opportunities to make connections and think broadly about a topic. Predict story features and events. Reflect on what they’ve read by integrating their prior knowledge with text-based information. The next two slides focus on the purpose of questioning and what kind of questions should be used depending on the text. Remind the audience that the goal is to assist students with formulating their responses by incorporating the question’s language into their answers. Review the differences between short answer and extended response. Types of questioning fall into 3 categories: Read the lines---literal questions Read between the lines----inferential questions Read beyond the lines-----text to self, text to text questions Students make inferences or predictions based on the reading (ex. Based on the information in the selection, what will most likely happen when ___?)

23 Questioning & Text Narrative Text: Who, What, When, Where & Why?
Solution to the problem. What will happen next? Expository Text: Does this make sense? What have I learned so far? What questions do I still have? There are specific types of questions that can be used depending on whether the text is Narrative or Expository. The nature of narrative text questions is to encourage the student to make inferences, predictions and hypothesis based on what they have read. While with expository text questioning the purpose is to gauge how much new learning has taken place and what is still needed by the student to master the content. The questions listed are broad in nature and are essentially student driven. Ideally they would take place during reading not only as a means to self monitor comprehension, but to also provide the student with the necessary background information to effectively demonstrate understanding of the topic or story. Activity: Use the Port of Tacoma book. Small groups will choose a learning target that is best suited for an expository text. They are to write an extended response question that represents the target.

Choose a story from the teacher’s manual to use. Select 2 “TARGETS” that will be the used for instruction. Decide if the strategy would work best in the Before, During or After section of the lesson. Select a writing response that will expand the strategy’s focus. These are the directions for the small group activity. They are to first select a story from the teacher’s manual. Next, they will select two learning targets for instruction. Then, they will decide which “Before, During & After” strategy would be the most effective. Finally, they will expand the strategy’s focus by selecting a written response.

25 It is all about the Quality of the Response for Extended Response
Assessment of Writing to Learn It is all about the Quality of the Response for Extended Response Use a rubric that focuses on Ideas, Organization and Conventions Ask yourself: Is the content accurate? Is it substantial, specific and /or illustrate the target? Does the response follow the structure? (Frame, summary structure, question responses) Are the conventions visible and do not interrupt the flow of the writing? Key questions: Is the content accurate? Is it substantial, specific and /or illustrate the target? Does the response follow the structure? (Frame, summary structure, question responses) Are the conventions visible?

26 Extended Written Responses to Reading Rubric
Assessment of Writing to Learn Extended Written Responses to Reading Rubric Activity: Look back on the story you choose and First as individuals score the written example you wrote as a student sample. Be critical, asking yourself the questions posed on the previous page. Then compare your scores with the rest of your team and answer the key questions together. Closure activity to wrap it all up- 1’s turn to 2’s and describe one important strategy or idea you are taking away from today. 2’s describe one important strategy or idea you are taking away from today. In Summary- If most kids think better than they write, but they never write better than they. Written responses are a clear indication for helping us to determine if our teaching, modeling, sequencing of instruction has reached its goal increased student understanding.

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