Presentation on theme: "Religion in China Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism."— Presentation transcript:
Religion in China Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism
TaoistChinas three religions have been the bedrock of Chinese civilization. Taoist thought was systemized by the sage Lao Zi over 2,500 years ago in his book Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching). The book expounds on the mysterious Way of the universe, which he calls the Tao. Confucianism (philosophy)Confucianism (philosophy) emphasizes a moral code for governance, family, and individual conduct. The teachings of Confucius (551 B.C.–479 B.C.) were the guiding principles for nearly every Chinese dynasty beginning with the Han. All who wished to become an official had to pass civil-service examinations that comprehensively tested their grasp of the Confucian classics and their moral code. In A.D. 67, Buddhism reached China from ancient India. Its focus on personal salvation and meditation had a profound effect on Chinese culture, lasting until today. Under the influence of these faiths and philosophies, Chinese culture has spawned a rich and profound system of values. The concepts of man and nature must be in balance, respect the heavens to know ones destiny, and the five cardinal virtues of benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness are all products of these three religions teachings, and traditional Chinese way of life was tied inextricably with these ideas.
Began 6 th C BCE in India/Nepal –Buddha: The enlightened one –Born Siddhartha Gautana: Kshatriya Caste –4 passing sights 1: An old crippled man 2: A sick man 3: A dead man 4: A holy man with no home Developed the 4 Nobel Truths to become Enlightened (Nirvana) –Life is difficult –All hardships and suffering from inappropriate attachment –Avoid suffering from inappropriate cravings –To do this, follow the 8 fold Nobel path Different sects: –Himalayans/Tibet: Vajrayana –Southern Asia, especially in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma): Theravada –North Asia and the Far East, including China, Japan, Korea: Mahayana
Mandalas A mandala is thought to bring peace and harmony to the area where it is being constructed. Tibetans see the mandala as a sacred object. After spending many hours of intricate labor, the monks destroy the mandala when it is finished, dramatizing the impermanence of our lives. They will then distribute small amounts of the consecrated sand to those who are present. They will pour the remaining sand into the stream that runs through Wilson Park so that its healing power will spread throughout our community and beyond…
Creating your Mandala Gather your materials and go to a quiet, private space. Light a candle or burn incense to establish a reflective mood. You may find it helpful to sit quietly for a few moments of prayer or meditation before beginning your mandala. This helps focus your attention on messages from the unconscious. Perhaps an image, a color, or even a movement will come to you as the beginning point for your mandala. Next draw a circle freehand, with a compass, or traced around a plate or other template. Then fill in the circle with color and form. Allow your mandala to unfold with as little thought as possible. Let go of all your notions about how a mandala should look. There are no "right" or "wrong" mandalas. When you have completed your mandala, write the days date on it, then put it somewhere in your living space where you can walk by and see it often. Let it be part of your life for a few days. Be open to receive any messages it has for you.
Flags of Tibet Tibetan Flag Tibetan Prayer Flags Tibetan Buddhists for centuries have planted these flags outside their homes and places of spiritual practice for the wind to carry the beneficent vibrations across the countryside. Prayer flags are said to bring happiness, long life and prosperity to the flag planter and those in the vicinity.
Tibet: The roof of the world TIBETS GOVERNMENT: THEOCRACY 1933: 13 th Dalai Lama dies 1935: Lhamo Dhondup born 1940: Lhamo Dhondup proclaimed 14 th Dalai Lama, taken to Lhasa –Dalai Lama: Teacher of Ocean Wide Wisdom 1950: Chinese troops liberate Tibet from Feudalism TIBET NOW PART OF CHINA 1959: Tibetan uprising failed, 89,000 Tibetans killed. 14 th Dalai Lama fled –Exile Government led by the Dalai Lama (Head of State) in Dharamsala India –1.2 Million Tibetans died in total/ estimated $80 billion in holy items stolen 1960s: Most Tibetan monasteries destroyed during Maos Cultural Revolution –Mao: Religion is Poison Today: Tibet is an autonomous region –Tibetan Autonomous Region Valley on the way to Tibet
Today: Opening up of Tibet? Chinese rail link to Tibetan town near India to be completed in three yearsChinese rail link to Tibetan town near India to be completed in three years Tibet sees 11th company go publicTibet sees 11th company go public Tourism Shangri-La
Panchen Lama: the lama next in rank to the Dalai Lama Lama: Tibetan religious teacher Tibetan Gendhun Choekyi Nyima ~ Born 1989 ~ Named 11 th Panchen Lama ~ Disappeared 1995 ~ Youngest Political Prisoner Chinese Gyaltsen Norbu ~Born 1990 ~Chosen by Chinese officials in 1995
DaZhao Monastery in Lhasa, the largest in Lhasa TIBET Timeline Regions and Territories: Tibet Tibet Tibet Timeline Dalai Lama: Tibetan People Put Through HellDalai Lama Q & A: China and TibetChina and Tibet Tibet in Picturesin Pictures Free Tibet in Picturesin Pictures Tibet Riot Anniversary (1959)Riot Anniversary Tibet Riots Chinas ReactionReaction
Xinjiang as Tibet? Uighurs are one of 55 nationally designated minorities in China. China's constitution officially recognizes the Uighurs' right to practice their own religion and to speak and learn in their own language. In practice, however, the government maintains tight control over Uighur culture. All mosques are required to register with the government. In 2001, authorities called in 8,000 imams for special training on the Communist Party's ethnic and religious policies. In 2002, Xinjiang's top university eliminated all instruction in the Uighur language. In 1949, when the communists first took power, more than 90 percent of Xinjiang's population was Uighur and about 5 percent was Han, from China's largest ethnic group. However, government-sponsored migration has dramatically changed the demographics of the region. Today, 47 percent of Xinjiang is Uighur and 41 percent is Han. Smaller groups of other Turkic Muslims, including Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, Tajiks and Uzbeks, make up the remainder of the population. The Uighurs (alternately spelled Uyghur, Uyguir, Uiguir and Weiwuer) have lived in this region for centuries. Uighurs use a Turkic dialect and write in an Arabic- based script. Mostly Sunni Muslims, the Uighurs comprise more than a third of China's estimated 18 million Muslims.
Literally, "way" or "path;" the rhythmic balance and natural, flowing patterns of the universe. The enlightened human being is one who always acts in accordance with the Dao Finding solace and harmony in nature Sage Lao Zi over 2,500 years ago wrote Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching). –The book expounds on the mysterious Way of the universe, which he calls the Tao.
Confucianism or Literati Tradition Founded by Confucius KUNG FU TZU (b. 551 BCE, d. 479 BCE) –Contemporary of Buddha and lived before Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. NOT A RELIGIONConfucianism is NOT A RELIGION! –A Moral philosophy based around character building –SECULAR ETHICS & SOCIAL CONDUCT! –For the educated elite –Confucius is NOT a deity! Is a code of conduct to help the individual contribute to society through self mastery and personal responsibility. The LUNG-YU, or analects, is the most sacred writings Today: Confucius and TV; weddings; Do your homework! Confucius and TVweddingsDo your homeworkConfucius and TVweddingsDo your homework
Confucius Quotes: Before you embark on a journey of revenge, dig two graves. Ignorance is the night of the mind, but a night without moon and star. When anger rises, think of the consequences. Have no friends not equal to yourself. He who learns but does not think, is lost. He who thinks but does not learn is in great danger. Silence is a friend who will never betray.
CHINA SHOULDN'T FEEL THREATENED BY DIVERSITY Asia One Asia One