Presentation on theme: "Unity and Diversity Through Federalism in Sudan Objectives: Definition of Sudanese Federalism. -Its use as a mechanism for the administration of diversity."— Presentation transcript:
Unity and Diversity Through Federalism in Sudan Objectives: Definition of Sudanese Federalism. -Its use as a mechanism for the administration of diversity. -Review of modes and nature of diversity in Sudan (cultural social, ethnic, linguistic.. etc). -Outstanding features of strategies and policies adopted towards the administration of diversity. -Evaluation of policies of diversity administration pointing out positive and negative aspects for rectification in future. -Review of some efforts dealing with diversity to avoid ethnic and cultural disputes. -To present effectiveness of Sudanese federation as embracing diversity and resolving identity issues.
Diversity in Sudan: Historical Background Some historic events deeply influenced the formulation of the Sudanese society. The most important events were: the Arabs invasion of Sudan. Spread of Islam. -Negative approaches in dealing with diversity during colonial regimes and early national governments 1953-1958 first national government 1958-1964 first military rule Accelerated development of diversity issues from political dispute to bloody confrontation with the centre (problems of Southern Sudan, Eastern Sudan and Darfur) -Weak interaction of ethnic groups especially in the South and Nuba Mountains. The colonial regime closed these areas to prevent any cultural interaction to create a barrier against the introduction of Arabic and Islamic cultures to these areas.
Features of Diversity in Sudan The historical development and successive migrations from neighboring countries had its great impact on the demographical map of Sudan. Because of this diversity Sudan was referred to as small Africa. Some outstanding features of diversity in Sudan could be revealed from the following: Multiple Ethnicity: Recent studies showed that there are (56) main ethnic groups in Sudan and (597) sub-ethnic groups which reflect a great complex diversity, interactions and mutual relations between these groups are the main reasons of frictions
Multiple Religions Religion is a basic component in nations building as an element of unity. The colonial policies of separation used to refer to the Muslim North and the Christian South. The fact is that neither all the North is Muslim nor all the South is Christian. Religion instead of being an element of unity became an issue of evolving in conflicts.
Multiple cultures Sudan is considered to be a multi cultural society. It is a blend of numerous cultures, languages, dialects, customs and traditions inherited from various civilizations. In spite of this diversity it is noted that Arabic culture and language are dominant in most part of the country. A clear evidence of this is what is known as Juba Arabic Arabi Juba which is a common language between people from the North and South of Sudan. So Sudan is considered to be a place of linguistic interaction because it embodies multi-lingual sociaties and a heritage of different civilizations.
Multiple Economy Economic variety in Sudan is a natural result of an enormous climatic diversity. Nomadism and agriculture are major modes of the economic life of the people. Urban economy: Disparity in development between different areas in Sudan is evident. The central regions are more developed. They embrace most important investment projects. This created a serious social and political dissatisfaction and created problems in the planning of development projects: some regions still believe they are marginalized. There is a need to re-structure the economy to adopt policies and strategies more inclined to social justice among all people of Sudan to safeguard equity and fairness.
Administration of Diversity To deal with ethnic and cultural diversity through a dual strategy. To adopt an embracing strategy to absorb all ethnic groups within the state and encourage positive co-existence and respect to other cultures of ethnic groups which have the right to enjoy and develop their particular cultures. Loyalty to the state should be supreme and above other tribal and religious groups loyalties.
Recognition of Identities During the period 1969 – 1985 May Regime granted Southern Sudan an autonomous self rule after the conclusion of Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972. for the first time the South was recognized to have a distinct identity. The system was developed in 1991 to a federal system to contain the struggle in the South. In a further step towards the Recognition of a separate entity to the South the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was signed in 2005. The CPA gave the South an autonomous status – two different systems within one state. At the end of the six years of the interim period the CPA gave the South Self determination through a referendum to be conducted for all eligible citizen of Southern Sudan.
Effectiveness of Federation in Embracing Diversity Federalism in Sudan adopted a balanced methodology in dealing with multiple issues through: Recognition of the political rights of minorities and their access to development. To consolidate these rights to reflect the identity of these groups. To adopt principles of dialogue and negotiations to resolve disputes between the central government and ethnic groups. (CPA 2005, Eastern Agreement 2006 Abuja Agreement Darfur 2006). Political dialogue and peaceful transition of power through legislative and executive elections for all levels of government.
Conclusion Federation in Sudan with its political, economic and social dimensions succeeded to a great extend to satisfy the needs and aspirations of various regions. It managed to contain most ethnic and political disputes in Southern and Eastern Sudan through a continuous methodology of dialogue and direct negotiations. These efforts are still in progress through Al Doha forum to resolve the problem of Darfur. Giving the South the right of self determination was criticized by some political parties as it may lead to secession but others think that it can be considered as a sort of political flexibility in favor of the federal system.