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1 Introduction, reporting requirements, workshop objectives Workshop on energy balances and energy related greenhouse gas emission inventories (under WG I of the EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism Committee, linked to Energy Statistics Committee) 24-25 June 2003, EEA (CPH) André Jol European Environment Agency
2 Contents Main GHG emission inventory quality demands Reporting requirements for inventories (MS and Commission, assisted by EEA) EU emissions from energy (supply and demand) Reporting of energy data EU GHG inventory improvement Objectives of the workshop
3 Main inventory quality demands Increasing demand for timely and high quality data for all user needs, but main driver is Kyoto Protocol. reliable (accurate) detailed trends (use of the best scientific methodology) consistent over time (preferably use of the same method for the complete time series) comparable between countries (use of same source categories) complete (covering all major source sectors) transparent (assumptions and methodologies used should be clearly explained and documented)
4 Main emission reporting requirements UNFCCC and EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol (6 greenhouse gases/carbon sinks) by 15 April (N-15 months) EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism (being revised in 2003) by 31 December (N-12 months). Same guidelines and methodologies: UNFCCC Guidelines and Common Reporting Format, revised and adopted in 2002 (COP8) 1996 IPCC Guidelines and Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management (2000) LULUCF (carbon sinks) Guidance being developed (2003) Additional MM implementing provisions (e.g. indicators) EU needs to compile an annual inventory (15 MS) and prepare NIR
5 Requirement to implement National GHG Inventory System under Kyoto Protocol Institutional, legal and procedural arrangements necessary to perform all functions Capacity for timely performance Single national entity with overall responsibility and involvement of others (scientific organisations, national statistical institutes, industry, environmental NGOs) Inventory QA/QC planning and implementation Programmes to improve the quality of activity data, emission factors and methods Identification of key source categories Estimation of uncertainties Recalculation Report NIS in National Inventory Report
6 Main other reporting requirements GHG MM Report on national programmes (adopted and planned policies and measures and their effectiveness), usually similar to Communication to UNFCCC Annual/bi-annual (future) reporting of projections for 2010 : ‘with measures’ (=baseline), ‘with additional measures’, and key underlying scenario data and assumptions Guidelines/implementing provisions (to be revised in 2003) Main new reporting requirements on Kyoto mechanisms (emission trading,joint implementation, clean development mechanism), ”carbon sinks” (LULUCF) and EU ET Directive
7 Assessment and reporting under the EU GHG Monitoring Mechanism Annual Commission report assessing progress towards the Kyoto Protocol (and burden sharing), see http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/greenhouse_mo nitoring.htm http://europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climat/greenhouse_mo nitoring.htm Support by EEA (see http://www.eea.eu.int)http://www.eea.eu.int EEA maintains the EU GHG inventory, assisted by the European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/ACC) and cooperating with JRC (carbon sinks) and Eurostat (energy) (Technical report 95, 2003) Greenhouse gas emission trends and projections in Europe (Environmental issue report No 33) Greenhouse gas emission trends 1990-2000 (Topic report No. 7/2002) Greenhouse gas emission projections (Technical report No. 77)
8 EU greenhouse gas emissions in relation to the Kyoto target (excl. LUCF)
9 EU-15 greenhouse gas emissions by sector and gas (change base year-2001 and share in 2001)
10 Main driving forces EC CO2 emissions
11 Contribution from energy/transport to EC emissions ‘Energy industries’: 28 % of total EU GHG emissions (electricity and heat production, oil refineries and manufacturing of solid fuels). 2 % decline is largely due to efficiency improvements in German coal fired power plants and to fuel switch in the UK power industry. ‘Transport’: 21 % of total EU GHG emissions. 20 % increase mainly due to fast growing road transport in all EU MS. ‘Other (Energy)’: 17 % of total EU GHG emissions (households and services). 1 % above 1990 levels in 2001, but fluctuate according to annual changes in outdoor temperature. ‘Industry (Energy): 14 % of total EU GHG emissions. Emissions decrease 9 %, largely due to the restructuring of the German industry and efficiency improvements in Germany and other countries.
12 Reporting of energy and GHG emissions Energy to Eurostat/IEA (annual questionnaires, per fuel) GHG data to UNFCCC and Commission (MM) Linkages and issues to be considered at the workshop: – MS compile and report national inventory using national energy data: need for consistency between both reporting mechanisms and for timely availability of national energy data; – Eurostat compiles energy balances and prepares EU CO2 reference approach estimates (with ETC) for comparison – EEA/ETC compiles EC inventory with national GHG and energy data to UNFCCC (also for comparison) – UNFCCC reviews inventories, using e.g. Eurostat/IEA data
13 EC GHG inventory improvement QA/QC of EC inventory depends on QA/QC systems for national GHG inventories Minor differences between EC and Member States’ inventories, are further being reduced through the UNFCCC review process Eurostat improvement project for national energy balances and annual estimation of EC CO2 emissions (IPCC Reference Approach) (this workshop) JRC compares national estimates for carbon sinks (focus on forests) and coordinates a project for improving GHG emissions from agriculture (focus on N2O from soils) (various other workshops)
14 Eurostat energy balance improvement project Grants to most EU MS: –2000: DK, SE, NL –2001: AU, DE, FR, UK –2002: IE, IT, PT –2003: call for proposals remaining countries Tasks for each grant: –Examine data in CRF and in questionnaire (IEA/Eurostat) and identify and explain difference (for 1990, 1995, 2000) –Establish a national procedure to eliminate differences –Provide updated energy data for 1990-2000
15 Objectives of the workshop Share best practice between countries, both statistical institutes and national GHG inventory compilers Strengthen the link between the reporting mechanisms of energy data (Eurostat/IEA) and GHG inventories (UNFCCC, Commission) Make recommendations to improve emission estimation methods and reporting of energy statistics as well as GHG inventories (from energy)
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