7 Pili Nucleoid Ribosomes Plasma membrane Bacterial chromosome Cell wall CapsuleFigure 4.3 A structural diagram of a typical prokaryotic cell.Module 4.3 mentions how antibiotics can specifically target prokaryotic but not eukaryotic cells. This might be a good time to discuss the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Teaching tips and ideas for related lessons can be found atFlagella
18 4 3 1 2 Transport vesicle buds off Ribosome Secretory protein inside trans-port vesicle3Sugarchain1Figure 4.9B Synthesis and packaging of a secretory protein by the rough ER.Glycoprotein2PolypeptideRough ER
19 Golgi Receives proteins in vesicles from the ER. Modifies proteins- adds sugar chains to “mark” them for a certain destination.Puts the proteins back into vesicles and sends them out.
22 VacuolesFunctions: storage, maintaining water balance, holding pigments, etc.Membrane-bound.
23 Chloroplast Nucleus Central vacuole Figure 4.12A Central vacuole in a plant cell.Ask your students to identify organelles in animal cells that are not involved in the synthesis of proteins (other than mitochondria). (Vacuoles and peroxisomes are not involved in protein synthesis.)
24 Nucleus Contractile vacuoles Figure 4.12B Contractile vacuoles in Paramecium, a single-celled organism.Contractilevacuoles
25 MitochondriaConvert sugar (glucose) into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- small energy packets. This is called cellular respiration.Have two membranes (inner and outer)
26 Mitochondrion Outer membrane Intermembrane space Inner membrane Figure 4.14 The mitochondrion.InnermembraneCristaeMatrix
27 ChloroplastsUse the sun’s energy to create glucose from carbon dioxide and water (photosynthesis)
28 Chloroplast Stroma Inner and outer membranes Granum Intermembrane Figure 4.15 The chloroplast.GranumIntermembranespace
29 Mitochondrion Engulfing of photosynthetic prokaryote Some cells of aerobicprokaryoteChloroplastHost cellFigure 4.16 Endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.MitochondrionHost cell
31 Receptor for motor protein VesicleATPReceptor for motor proteinMotor protein (ATP powered)Microtubuleof cytoskeleton(a)MicrotubuleVesicles0.25 µmCampbell, Neil, and Jane Reece, Biology, 8th ed., Figure 6.21 Motor proteins and the cytoskeleton. (a) Motor proteins that attach to receptors on vesicles can “walk” the vesicles along microtubules or, in some cases, microfilaments; Vesicles containing neurotransmitters migrate to the tips of nerve cell axons via the mechanism in (a).(b)