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Chapter 15— Fire Control.

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1 Chapter 15— Fire Control

2 Chapter 15 Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to attack various types of fires, using effective attack tactics & attack Class B fires & coordinate interior attacks

3 Coordination When Suppressing Structure Fires
Fire attack on burning structure must be coordinated When fighting any fire, FFs should always work as a team under direction of a supervisor

4 Actions to Take Advancing hoseline teams should carry equipment needed to perform a variety of tasks Certain equipment carried by teams advancing hoselines Person at nozzle has responsibilities before entering building/area

5 Actions to Take When structure/major contents are involved in fire, FFs should wait at entrance, staying low, out of doorway until fire officer gives order to advance Before entry, extinguish fires showing in exterior overhangs/around entry or egress points (Continued)

6 Actions to Take Whenever possible, approach & attack fire from unburned side to keep it from spreading throughout structure Once fire is contained, determine area of origin, protect evidence before overhaul & extinguishment (Continued)

7 Actions to Take SCBA must be worn during overhaul, extinguishment
Valuables found during overhaul should be turned in to supervisor

8 Hoseline Selection Factors
Fire conditions Fire load & material involved Volume of water needed for extinguishment Stream reach needed

9 Hoseline Selection Factors
Number of FFs available to advance hoselines Need for speed, mobility Tactical requirements Ease of hoseline deployment Potential fire spread

10 Stream Selection Dictated by fire situation, capabilities of nozzle being used Solid-stream nozzle projects water in more-or-less solid mass (Continued)

11 Stream Selection Combination (fog) nozzles project water in range of patterns

12 3/25/2017 Straight Stream Used when ventilation holes are not big enough or ventilation is delayed Used in direct attack 15–12

13 Fog Patterns Provide streams that are effective at cooling hot gases
3/25/2017 Fog Patterns Provide streams that are effective at cooling hot gases Have less reach & penetration than straight or solid streams Wide fog patterns can protect FFs from radiant heat, but can be affected by wind 15–13

14 Converting Water to Steam
Critical to heat absorption Excess steam production can obscure vision, inflict steam burns Appropriate water application methods critical

15 Pre-Entry Considerations
Conduct quick size-up Maintain high level of situation awareness Read fire behavior indicators Understand crew’s tactical assignment (Continued)

16 Pre-Entry Considerations
Identify potential emergency escape routes Assess forcible entry requirements Identify hazards Verify that radios are working, on right channel, being received

17 Opening Doors If door to fire area must be opened, all FFs should stay low & to one side of doorway Check door for heat before opening Control the door when opening

18 DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done if smoke is escaping at the top of a doorway that is about to be opened?

19 Gas Cooling Not a fire extinguishment method; way of reducing hazard presented by hot gas layer Effective when faced with shielded fire Shielded fire: FF cannot apply water directly to fire

20 Hot Gas Layer Hot gas layer accumulating in upper levels of compartment presents problems Remember: Smoke is fuel! Cooling hot gas layer reduces chance of rollover or flashover

21 Cooling Hot Gas Layer Apply short bursts of water fog into it
Repeat technique as necessary while hose team advances under gas layer toward fire

22 Fire Attack To achieve extinguishment , water must be applied to absorb heat faster than it is being generated Consider fire load & material involved Consider amount of water flow needed

23 Fire Attack Interior or compartment fires are oxygen or ventilation dependent Must have sufficient oxygen to burn Outside or exterior fires are fuel dependent Will burn as long as there is sufficient fuel available

24 Direct Attack Most efficient use of water on free-burning fires made by direct attack (Continued)

25 Direct Attack Usually from straight or solid stream
Water applied in short bursts directly to base of fire Water should not be applied too long or the thermal layer is upset Steam production forces smoke & heat to the floor (Continued)

26 Indirect Attack Used when FFs unable to enter burning building/ compartment Can be made from outside compartment through window or other small opening (Continued)

27 Indirect Attack Once fire is darkened down & space has been ventilated & the hose advanced to extinguish hot spots Not ideal method of attack where building occupants may still be inside (Continued)

28 Indirect Attack May be only method of attack until temperatures reduced Fog stream is directed at ceiling Heat converts water spray to steam, which fills room Water should not be applied too long or the thermal layer is upset Steam production forces smoke & heat to the floor

29 DISCUSSION QUESTION What is the difference between a direct & indirect attack?

30 Combination Attack Uses heat-absorbing technique of a ceiling level attack followed by application of fire stream near the floor on the materials burning

31 Combination Attack Straight or power cone fog stream
Stream directed at ceiling in “T”, “Z”, or “O” pattern 15–31

32 Master Streams Used in situations where fire is beyond effectiveness of handlines or there is need for fire streams in areas unsafe for FFs Main uses for master streams: Direct fire attack Backup handlines that are already attacking fire from the exterior Exposure protection

33 Positioning Master Stream
Must be properly positioned to apply effective master stream on fire Master stream can be adjusted up, down & left, right Once in operation, must be shut down if device is to be moved (Continued)

34 Positioning Master Stream
Stream should be aimed so it enters structure at upward angle, deflects off ceiling or other overhead objects Desirable to place master stream device in location that allows stream to cover most surface area of building (Continued)

35 Supplying Master Streams
Master stream devices can have high friction loss in supply hose Because master streams are used mostly in defensive firefighting, shut down handlines to keep from reducing water supply for master streams (Continued)

36 Staffing Master Stream Devices
Usually takes minimum of 2 FFs to deploy master stream device, supply water to it Once portable master stream device in place, can be operated by 1 FF Some situations may be too dangerous to have FFs stationed at master stream device (Continued)

37 DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done if a master stream device starts to move?

38 Elevated Master Stream Devices
Used to apply water to upper stories of multistory buildings, either in direct attack or to supply handlines Delivered by aerial devices

39 Quints Engines equipped with hydraulically operated extension ladder or aerial apparatus equipped with pump Main ladders range in length (Continued)

40 Quints Have waterways pre-plumbed to pumps
Only external support needed is water supply Main ladder can be used for rescuing people from exterior windows, ledges, & rooftops within reach of main ladder

41 Aerial Ladders Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mikal, NOFD Photo Unit. Apparatus equipped w/ hydraulically operated extension ladders (Continued)

42 Aerial Ladders In North America, usually feet (15-41 m), but in Europe sometimes as much as 300 feet (100 m) Newer aerial ladders equipped with built-in waterways that supply master stream nozzle (Continued)

43 Aerial Ladders Master stream nozzles of both types of apparatus can be operated by FFs at ladder tip/on ground Can be used for rescuing people from exterior windows, ledges, rooftops within reach

44 Aerial Platforms Available in two configurations
Aerial ladder platforms Articulating aerial platforms (Continued)

45 Aerial Platforms All equipped with built-in waterways
Some articulating devices have narrow escape ladders Can be used for rescuing people

46 Water Towers Engines equipped with hydraulically operated booms that are dedicated to applying water Most range from ft (15-40 m) in length Some have narrow escape ladders attached to boom Not designed for rescue operations Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mikal, NOFD Photo Unit. (Continued)

47 Class B Fires Those that involve flammable & combustible liquids, gases Flammable liquids — Flash points less than 100ºF (38ºC) (Continued)

48 Class B Fires Combustible liquids — Flash points higher than 100ºF (38ºC) Divisions of flammable, combustible liquids Hydrocarbons Polar solvents

49 Actions and Precautions
Avoid standing in pools of fuel/runoff water because there may be fuel floating on top of water Unburned flammable liquid vapors are heavier than air & collect in low areas PPE soaked with flammable/combustible liquids must be removed from service until cleaned

50 Actions and Precautions
5, 10, 15 minute rule In 5 minutes instrumentation fails MOV, sight glasses, fin fan controls, etc. In 10 minutes structural steel begins to fail In 15 minutes tanks & piping will BLEVE

51 Actions and Precautions
Do not extinguish fire on pressure relief valve until PRV is fully reseated Try to contain pooling liquid until flow can be stopped (Continued)

52 Actions and Precautions
Class B fire fighting techniques also needed for fires in gas utility facilities/highway incidents involving fuel tankers Crew Protection Position apparatus uphill & upwind of flammable liquid spills Control ignition sources: important at spills

53 Three-Dimensional Fires
3/25/2017 Three-Dimensional Fires Has length, width, & depth Burning liquid is dripping, spraying, or flowing over edges of container Difficult to extinguish w/ foam Dry extinguishing agents are more effective Avoid standing in pools or contaminated runoff 15–53

54 BLEVE Occurs in a closed, liquid container
3/25/2017 BLEVE Occurs in a closed, liquid container Heating by direct flame contact causes vessel to fail, suddenly releasing its contents Produces a violent explosion Most common cause is when flames contact vessel above the liquid level or when insufficient water is applied to keep vessel cool 15–54

55 Kingman, Arizona – Killed an entire fire crew
3/25/2017 BLEVE Dozens of emergency services personnel have been killed by BLEVEs Horizontal tanks Designed to fail at the ends Be at 45▫ angle to tank ends Pieces may travel in all directions Pieces may travel great distances Kingman, Arizona – Killed an entire fire crew 15–55

56 BLEVE Direct heavy streams of water onto tank using unmanned master streams from safe distance 500 GPM minimum flow at point of flame contact Cool vapor the space If you cannot flow at least 500 GPM onto the container that has direct flame contact, you should evacuate to a safe area

57 BLEVE Signs of a BLEVE: Relief valve increases in pitch
3/25/2017 BLEVE Signs of a BLEVE: Relief valve increases in pitch Relief valve flame grows Fire impinges vapor space freely Insufficient cooling water Popping, pinging sounds from welds breaking (You’re way too close!) 15–57

58 Using Water to Control Class B Fires
Water alone ineffective extinguishing agent Use water as a cooling agent

59 Bulk Transport Vehicle Fires
Follow pre-incident plans Techniques of extinguishment similar to fires in flammable fuel facilities Major differences in vehicles transporting flammable fuels, storage facilities

60 Traffic Guidelines Close at least one lane of traffic in addition to incident lane during initial emergency operations Avoid using road flares because of possible ignition When ISO or police are unavailable, FFs should be assigned to direct traffic, control scene access (Continued)

61 Traffic Guidelines Position fire apparatus uphill, upwind (Continued)

62 Traffic Guidelines Exit apparatus, work from the side away from traffic as much as possible Turn wheels of vehicles parked to protect FFs so apparatus cannot be pushed into them if struck by another vehicle (Continued)

63 Techniques Be aware of possibility of vehicle tires failing
Know status/limitations of water supply Protect trapped victims w/ hose streams until rescue Determine exact nature of cargos

64 DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done if you cannot determine the exact nature of the cargo?

65 Control of Gas Utilities
FFs should have working knowledge of hazards, correct procedures for handling incidents involving liquefied petroleum gas (Continued)

66 Control of Plant Gas Utilities
Gas used for heating & industrial processes Call plant operations to control gas Petroleum gases are odorless Methyl mercaptan added to give it odor

67 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Butane & propane Packaged in gas cylinders for consumer use Gases stored as a liquid under pressure (Continued)

68 DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some common locations where LPG is used?

69 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
About 1.5 times as heavy as air Expands 240:1 from liquid to vapor Explosive in concentrations between 1.5 & 10% Shipped from distribution point of usage in cylinders & tanks on cargo trucks (Continued)

70 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Stored in cylinders, tanks near point of use for consumer use On tanks & cylinders, supply of gas may be stopped by shutting valve at tank In the plants, gas can shut off by valves in piping or at pumps Do not shut off valves in plants on your own (Continued)

71 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
LPG leak will produce visible cloud of vapor that hugs ground Cloud of unburned gas may be dispersed by fog stream LPG bonds with water All LPG containers, regardless of size, can BLEVE

72 DISCUSSION QUESTION How can a BLEVE be prevented?

73 Flammable Gas Incidents
Approach from upwind side especially if gas is not ignited First concerns are evacuation of area immediately around break, evacuation of area downwind, elimination of ignition sources (Continued)

74 Flammable Gas Incidents
If gas is burning, flame should not be extinguished Causes uncontrolled vapor cloud that can explode Use hose streams to protect exposures (Continued)

75 Flammable Gas Incidents
Use two handlines working together to access valve & close it Provide a back-up line that is supplied by a different source of water Supplied by different source so all lines do not fail at once (Continued)

76 Flammable Gas Incidents
3/25/2017 Flammable Gas Incidents For severe fires, use unmanned master streams Retreat w/ water flowing 15–76

77 DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done if gas is burning from a broken pipe?

78 Class C Fires Involve energized electrical equipment
Major safety hazard — FFs fail to recognize danger & take appropriate steps for protection Once electrical power turned off, may self-extinguish or fall into Class A or B (Continued)

79 DISCUSSION QUESTION What are some examples of potential Class C fires?

80 Class C Fires In many commercial & high rise buildings, electrical power necessary to operate essential systems; not to be shut off until ordered When handling fires in delicate electronic/computer equipment, clean extinguishing agents should be used (Continued)

81 Class C Fires Multipurpose dry-chemical agents effective, but some chemically reactive w/ components Will corrode & damage electronics Using water inappropriate because of shock hazard (Continued)

82 Class C Fires: Transmission Lines and Equipment
Relatively small number of electrical emergencies involve fires in electrical substations, transmission lines, associated equipment (Continued)

83 Class C Fires: Transmission Lines and Equipment
Electrical power lines sometimes break, start fires in grass/other vegetation Fires in electrical transformers common Use dry chemical on ground level fires Let pole mounted fires burn

84 Class C Fires: Underground Transmission Lines
Consist of conduits, vaults below grade Most serious hazards presented are explosions caused by fuses blowing or short-circuit arcing that ignites accumulated gases Electrical utility vault Do not enter for firefighting

85 Class C Fires: Commercial High-Voltage Installations
Many commercial/industrial complexes have electrical equipment requiring 600+ volts High-voltage signs may be on doors Some transformers use flammable coolants that are hazardous (Continued)

86 Class C Fires: Commercial High-Voltage Installations
Water should not be used because of potential damage to electrical equipment uninvolved in fire Because of toxic chemicals, smoke is additional hazard FFs should only enter for rescue

87 Controlling Electrical Power
In many situations, it is better for electrical power to remain on for lighting, fire pumps, other essential systems Decision to cut off power is made by IC & Incident Safety Officer (Continued)

88 Controlling Electrical Power
To turn off power call utility department Do not, on your own, cut off power in plants, or other locations In homes, you may turn off power at the breaker box Electrical service up to the breaker box is on

89 Controlling Electrical Power
Many Saudi Aramco facilities are provided w/ emergency back-up power capabilities Considerations for illegal wiring outside of company facilities

90 DISCUSSION QUESTION What should be done before cutting into walls & ceilings that may contain electrical wiring?

91 Electrical Shock Consequences of electrical shock Cardiac arrest
Paralysis Surface or internal burns Damage to joints Burns to eyes

92 Electrical Shock Factors most affecting seriousness of electrical shock Path of electricity through body Degree of skin resistance – wet (low) or dry (high) Length of exposure Available current Available voltage

93 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
Establish exclusion zone equal to one span all directions from downed power lines (Continued)

94 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
Be aware other wires may have been weakened by short circuit, may fall at any time Wear full protective clothing, use only tested & approved tools w/ insulated handles Guard against electrical shocks, burns, eye injuries from electrical arcs Wait for utility workers to cut power lines (Continued)

95 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
Use lockout/tagout devices when working on electrical equipment Be very careful when raising/lowering ladders near power lines Get no closer than 10’ (3m) (Continued)

96 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
Do not touch any vehicle/apparatus in contact with electrical wires Jump clear of apparatus that may be energized by contact with power lines Do not use solid, straight streams on fires in energized electrical equipment (Continued)

97 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
Use fog streams w/ at least 100 psi (700 kPa) nozzle pressure Be aware wire mesh or steel rail fences can be energized by wires outside field of view (Continued)

98 Guidelines for Electrical Emergencies
Where wires are down, heed any tingling sensation felt in feet, back away Avoid ground gradient hazards by maintaining large safety zone around downed electrical wires Voltage drops as it spreads away from source

99 DISCUSSION QUESTION How should you back out of a ground gradient area?

100 Company-Level Fire Tactics
Standard tactical priorities — Life safety, incident stabilization, property conservation Order of priorities same, but actions taken on fireground may/may not be performed in that order Rescue consideration is always 1st

101 Responsibilities — First-in Engine Company
If smoke/fire visible, lay supply line from hydrant Company officer will conduct rapid size-up Size-up determines further actions taken by first-in engine company

102 Responsibilities — First In Engine Company
If by taking immediate action, the company can save a life, they should do so Even if not enough FFs on scene to form rapid intervention crew (RIC) (Continued)

103 Responsibilities — First In Engine Company
If no immediate life-safety concerns, & fire might extend to nearby structures, officer may order lines pulled to apply water to exposure Officer may call for more resources (Continued)

104 Responsibilities — First In Engine Company
Given a small interior fire, company officer usually assumes Command of incident Until arrival a more senior chief officer who will assume command in most cases Called transfer of command Takes place face-to-face Cannot take place over the radio Once location of fire known, first-due engine company will position initial attack hoseline to cover priorities

105 Responsibilities — Second In Engine Company
Must make sure adequate water supply established to fireground May finish hose lay, lay additional line, connect to hydrant Protects secondary means of egress & exit of first-in company

106 Responsibilities — Second In Engine Company
Backs up initial attack line Prevents extension & protects exposures Assist in extinguishment Assists with support activities

107 Responsibilities — Fireground Support Company
Responsible for performing tasks in order dictated by situation Functions may be performed by engine personnel when support companies not available May assist in making fire attack

108 Responsibilities — Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
Consists of 2+ members wearing appropriate PPE, radio Equipped w/ special rescue tools, equipment necessary to effect rescue of other emergency personnel (Continued)

109 Responsibilities — Rapid Intervention Crew (RIC)
May be assigned other emergency scene duties; must be prepared to drop those immediately if needed Exact number determined by IC Courtesy of District Chief Chris E. Mickal, NOFD Photo Unit.

110 Responsibilities — Chief Officer/ Incident Commander
Upon arriving at scene, chief officer may choose to assume Command from original IC & take responsibility for all on-scene operations (Continued)

111 Responsibilities — Chief Officer/ Incident Commander
If original IC has incident well organized, progress toward incident stabilization being made, chief officer may assume another role IC should plan ahead for future resources, i.e. fresh crews, rehab, air

112 Fires in Upper Levels of Structures
Typical residential response consisting of 2-3 engines & one truck is usually not enough A large number of FFs are needed

113 DISCUSSION QUESTION Should elevators ever be used during fire operations?

114 Attacking Fires in Upper Levels
Fire attack is started from floor below fire floor Crews should check floors above main fire floor for fire extension, victims (Continued)

115 Attacking Fires in Upper Levels
Look at other floors to get an idea of the layout of the fire floor Elevators can be used if they are controlled by the FFs Elevator controls may be damaged by fire Requires override key or do not use Any fire in the upper levels requires extra manpower & equipment

116 Attacking Fires in Upper Levels
Staging areas are established two floors below fire floor Personnel must exercise caution in streets around outside perimeter of high-rise building Falling glass, debris, people

117 Fires in Basements Can expose FFs to extremely hostile conditions
FFs must travel through superheated gases & smoke to reach fire area May be possible to control fire without entering basement (Continued)

118 Fires Belowground in Structures
If cellar nozzle unavailable, FFs may have to enter burning basement Good ventilation techniques extremely important Heavy objects on floor above fire floor can increase chance of floor collapse

119 Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
FFs should be familiar with systems in buildings protected by their department Supporting systems critical during fire (Continued)

120 Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
Types of systems Sprinkler systems Carbon dioxide systems Standpipe systems Foam systems Clean-agent systems Dry-chemical hood systems Wet-chemical systems

121 Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems
Dangers involved w/ fires in occupancies w/ fixed systems Oxygen depletion following activation of carbon dioxide flooding systems Poor visibility Energized electrical equipment Toxic environments (Continued)

122 Pre-incident Plans Include detailed descriptions of construction features, contents, protection systems, surrounding properties May specify procedures for each system Contain building map Must be updated regularly (Continued)

123 Sprinklered Buildings
Some possible actions Assign a radio-equipped FF at OS&Y valve Install wedges to stop flow of water Replace sprinkler heads Restore the system Monitor the building

124 Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles
Among the most common types of fires FFs must wear full PPE, SCBA (Continued)

125 Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles
Attack line should be 1½-inch minimum Piercing nozzle can be used on hoods, fenders, trunk & wheel wells Halligan tool or pick head axe can be used to force hood or trunk Booster lines must not be used (Continued)

126 Fires in Small Passenger Vehicles
Safest way to attack fire is from upwind & uphill Portable extinguishers can suppress some fires in vehicle’s engine compartment/electrical system

127 DISCUSSION QUESTION Why should vehicle fires be attacked from upwind & uphill?

128 Basic Procedures One of first actions is to establish safe working zone Once scene safety established, FFs can focus on saving vehicle occupants, fighting fire FFs should stay out of potential travel path of front, rear bumpers Trunk lid & hood supports can explode (Continued)

129 Basic Procedures Occupied Vehicle
Position hoseline between burning vehicle & any exposure Attack fire from 45° angle Extinguish fire near occupants first Issue all clear when occupants are out of vehicle Extinguish ground fire Overhaul

130 Basic Procedures Unoccupied Vehicle
Position hoseline between burning vehicle & any exposure Attack fire from 45° angle Extinguish any ground fire Overhaul

131 Basic Procedures Fires in undercarriage
Straight stream from a distance Straight steam deflect off of pavement Open hood & direct stream through engine compartment

132 Hazards In addition to hazards associated w/ other fires, there are hazards specific to vehicle fires Catalytic converters can act as ignition source to dry grass/other fuels under vehicle (Continued)

133 Hazards Interior components on vehicle mainly plastic, which burns rapidly at high temperatures & emits toxic gases Air bags are a relatively new hazard & can deploy from steering wheel, dashboard, or door of vehicle (Continued)

134 Hazards Hybrid vehicles incorporate high-voltage cables, components
DO NOT cut into high voltage components/wires Orange wire

135 Trash Container Fires Possibility of exposure to toxic products of combustion ever-present May include hazardous materials or plastics Full PPE, SCBA should be worn when attacking any trash container fire

136 Attacking Trash Container Fires
Size of attack line depends on size of fire & proximity to exposures Fires in small piles of trash, garbage cans, small containers can often be extinguished w/ booster line (Continued)

137 Attacking Trash Container Fires
Larger piles, larger containers, fires close to exposures should be attacked w/ at least 1½-inch (38 mm) line Master streams may be needed to keep trash container fires from spreading (Continued)

138 Attacking Trash Container Fires
Once fire is controlled, may be possible to use standard overhaul techniques to complete extinguishment May be advantageous to attack fire using Class A foam

139 Confined Spaces Below grade or otherwise w/o natural/forced ventilation Atmospheric hazards Toxic/heat/oxygen deficient Physical hazards Limited egress Liquids/loose materials Equipment/trays (Continued)

140 Confined Spaces Where to find information on the fire
Plant/building supervisors Pre-incident plans Hazard control plans Because of hazards, command post & staging area must be established outside hot zone

141 DISCUSSION QUESTION When is it safe for FFs to enter these confined spaces?

142 Fire Attack Fires may also be attacked indirectly w/ penetrating nozzles, cellar nozzles, distributor nozzles Effective air-management system should be part of IAP

143 Wildland Fires Fires in weeds, grass, field crops, brush, & forests
Are different from fires in buildings Most important factors on wildland fire behavior: Fuel Weather Topography

144 Wildland Fires — Fuel Subsurface fuels: Roots & peat
Surface fuels: Needles, twigs, grass, brush Aerial fuels: Suspended & upright fuels over 6 feet (2 m) from ground (Continued)

145 Wildland Fires — Fuel Factors affecting burning characteristics of fuels: Fuel size: Small or light fuels burn faster Compactness: Tightly compacted fuels, such as hay bales, burn slower Continuity: Fuels close together burn faster Volume: The amount of fuel present Fuel moisture content: Drier fuels ignite easier & burn faster (Continued)

146 Wildland Fires — Weather
Wind: Fans the flames & spreads fire Temperature: Affects fuels by drying them Relative humidity: Affects moisture content of dead fuels; low humidity dries fuels Precipitation (Rain): Affects moisture content of live & dead fuels Wind & rain have the biggest effect

147 Wildland Fires — Topography
Topography: layout of the ground Steepness of slope affects both rate & direction of fire spread Fires usually spread faster uphill than down; steeper the slope, faster fire spreads (Continued)

148 Parts of Wildland Fire (Continued)

149 Parts of Wildland Fire Burned Unburned

150 Wildland PPE Structural turnout gear is inappropriate for big wildland fires Can be dangerous Wildland FFs wear special PPE PPE should meet NFPA 1977 (Continued)

151 Attacking Wildland Fires
Methods aimed at perimeter (fire boundary) control Control line may be at burning edge, next to it, or a distance away Objective is to make a control line that completely circles fire

152 Wildland Firefighting Techniques
Direct attack: Action taken directly against flames at burning edge or close to it Indirect attack: Used at a distance from the fire Wildland fires constantly change, so attack methods may change

153 Summary Attacking fires early in their development is an important aspect of a successful fire fighting operation Selecting & applying the most effective fire attack strategy & tactics are also important (Continued)

154 Summary Failing to do any of these things can result in a fire growing out of control, an increase in fire damage & loss, & possibly in FF injuries (Continued)

155 Summary FFs need to know how to use the firefighting tools & techniques adopted by FrPD They need to know how to safely & effectively attack & extinguish structure fires, vehicle fires, & trash fires

156 Skills Attack a structure fire — Exterior attack.
Deploy & operate a master stream device. Extinguish a fire in a trash container. Attack a fire in stacked/piled materials. Turn off building utilities. (Skill Sheet FF-I-109) Attack a structure fire (above, below, & grade level) — Interior attack. (Skill Sheet FF-I-110)

157 Skills Attack a passenger vehicle fire. (Skill Sheet FF-I-111)
Extinguish an ignitable liquid fire. Control a pressurized flammable gas container fire. (Skill Sheet FF-II-217) Establish Incident Command & coordinate interior attack of a structure fire. (Skill Sheet FF-II-212, 213) Exercise 12 RIC Team

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