Presentation on theme: "Whole Class Feedback A guide to whole class feedback including:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Whole Class Feedback A guide to whole class feedback including: Made by Mike Gershon –Whole Class FeedbackA guide to whole class feedback including:IntroductionRationaleFurther Reading25 examples of how to get whole class feedback
2 Contents Introduction Rationale Further Reading 25 ideas for whole class feedback:Post-It Notes Mini-Whiteboards Exit Pass True-False CardsABCD Cards Thumbs Traffic Lights Stand-Crouch-SitPost-It Divider Continuum Partnering Whiteboard WordsVoting Pods Question? Answer Objectives Random FeedbackTxt Msg Play-Doh Silent Debate Evaluation TreeSmiley Faces Muddiest Point Seed to Tree Forum Fingers
3 Introduction Back to Contents Whole class feedback is a crucial part of assessment for learning (AfL). It is a means to assess the understanding of all students in a way that is efficient and time effective.‘Whole class feedback’ refers to any method which allows the teacher to gain information concerning the knowledge and understanding of all the students in a class. Further in this document there are twenty-five examples of such methods.A concern sometimes raised by teachers is that whole class feedback can make teaching and learning somewhat mechanical, whereby the transmission of knowledge is prized above critical and creative thinking. Certainly the techniques have the potential to be used in this way, however their non-prescriptive nature means the teacher is always in control of how students engage with them.A second fear for some teachers is that whole class feedback may lead to a heavier workload in an already time-consuming job, with mountains of feedback needing to be sifted through. Precise and considered use of the techniques eliminates these worries; good planning on behalf of the teacher affords a deep understanding of where students are at without increasing workload.The techniques explained below have frequently helped teachers to ‘work smarter’, allowing them to deal with misconceptions on-the-go and en masse. Many also enable peers to aid one another’s learning, decreasing reliance on the teacher and increasing awareness of the learning process.
4 Rationale Back to Contents Whole class feedback is a crucial part of assessment for learning (AfL). As such, the rationale concerns AfL as a whole, of which whole class feedback is a part. This is a précis built on the evidence contained in the further reading detailed on the following page.Assessment for learning differs from assessment of learning as coaching differs from a fitness test.Assessment for learning involves the teacher and student becoming aware of how learning can be improved, how technique can be better mastered, how knowledge and understanding can accord more closely with reason, logic, that which is already known; how the gap can be closed between where the student is and where the teacher, curriculum, school can help them to get. Assessment of learning tests what a student knows.The first is formative, the latter summative. The first informs, the latter sums up. The first is open and cumulative, the latter is closed and definitive.“Assessment for Learning (AfL) means using evidence and dialogue to identify where pupils are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there.” (http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/research/themes/assessment_for_learning/)Assessment for learning, embedded in teaching, improves pupil attainment. Many teachers do it without calling it by such a moniker; all teachers, at all levels and in all subjects are able to do it. By no means is it reserved for the few or applicable only in specific situations.
5 Further Reading Back to Contents Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice,Paul Black, Chris Harrison, Clare Lee, Bethan Marshall, Dylan WiliamThis book sums up the extensive research review on which the assertions concerning AfL are made. It details how formative assessment can improve pupils’ learning and has a series of case studies from English schools. It is practical, realistic and explicitly tied to the classroom.Black Box Subject Series,Paul Black, Christine Harrison, Bethan Marshall & Dylan Wiliam (eds.)These booklets precede the book. They include subject specific guidance on how to work with AfL. ‘Inside the Black Box’ and ‘Working Inside the Black Box’ are general guides. All are available cheaply atOstensibly for Key Stage 1 and 2, this Northern Ireland Curriculum document offers an excellent introduction to AfL. There is also sound advice and examples on how to use it in the classroom. A reading list far in excess of this one is included.
6 Back to ContentsPost It NotesGive students post-it notes on which to write answers or reflections.These could be collected in, placed on the board or held up.
7 Back to ContentsMini-WhiteboardsStudents write their answers on mini-whiteboards. These can be held up to show the teacher and peers.Extend by asking students to assess each other, correct misconceptions or analyse answers.
8 No exiting if you haven’t got a pass! Back to ContentsExit PassStudents are given a slip of paper on which they must write the answer to a question, or series of questions.These are then deposited on the way out, giving the teacher feedback from all students.No exiting if you haven’t got a pass!
9 Laminate a set of cards with true on one side and false on the other. Back to ContentsTrue/False CardsLaminate a set of cards with true on one side and false on the other.Plan questions around common misconceptions or difficult ideas for students to wave their cards for. Questioning, peer assessment and the like can grow from there.
10 Laminate a set of different coloured cards with A,B,C and D on them. Back to ContentsABCD cardsLaminate a set of different coloured cards with A,B,C and D on them.Show students questions related to the topic with four possible answers. Reasons for choices can be followed up, questioned and so on.
11 It may be useful to have a display or key such as… Back to ContentsThumbsAsk students to show you with their thumbs how well they feel they understand the work.It may be useful to have a display or key such as…I do not feel happy that I understand what we are doing. I would like more help.I feel confident with the work and could explain it to someone else.I understand some of the work, but still have questions or am unsure.
12 Back to ContentsTraffic LightsStudents have a set of traffic lights they can use to indicate whether they fully understand (green), are in the middle (amber) or are struggling (red).Different materials can be used e.g. pieces of card, plastic cups (students can stack all three and change what is on top), lollipop sticks.
13 Back to ContentsStand-Crouch-SitStudents stand, crouch or sit depending on whether they feel comfortable with the learning, in the middle or unsure.Students who are standing can be asked to go around the room and explain to crouchers, who in turn explain to sitters until, hopefully, everyone in the room is happy to stand up.
14 Back to ContentsPost It DividerA variation on the use of post-it notes. Hand them out to students and divide the board or a large piece of paper into categories –What have I learnt; What am I not sure about; What questions do I haveOr questions –What is the answer to X?; Where might you use Y?The students reflect on these on the post-its.
15 Back to ContentsContinuumAsk students to come and stand on a continuum indicating where they are at from ‘Understand and can explain’ to ‘Need more help to get to grips with it’.If you feel students may be uneasy about standing where they want to, you could use post-its with names on or totally blank (you’ll still get an idea of where the class are at).
16 Follow up by questioning or peer assessment Back to ContentsPartneringHand out half question cards and half answer cards. Students must then match themselves up in silence.Develop by having a third questions and two thirds answers, with two answers being correct for every one question; sticking questions and answers on students’ backs; questions find questions that lead to the same answer and answers find answers that could be from the same questionFollow up by questioning or peer assessment
17 Back to ContentsWhiteboard WordsHere’s a variation on the mini-whiteboard theme. Give students a limited number of words with which to explain the key points of the lesson or ask them to identify the most important piece of learning.The results may allow you to judge in what directions pupils are taking their learning and how everyone is interacting with the concepts and ideas.
18 Voting PodsBack to ContentsVoting pods allow students to input their answers to the computer, these then being accessible on an interactive whiteboard.Simple!
19 Back to ContentsQuestion? AnswerPut a question on the board and have different answers around the room. Students go to the one they think is right and justify their decision.Make this easier by having A,B,C,D points or posters in your room. Then you can have the answers on the board as well to save faffing.Develop by getting one member from each answer area to try and convince the others that their answer is right (good for encourage use of reason and uncovering of fallacy, misconceived reasoning etc.)
20 Objective Traffic Lights Back to ContentsObjective Traffic LightsHow do you feel about the lesson objectives?Red = don’t think I have grasped thisAmber = feeling OK about this, have just about got thereGreen = Confident I have achieved thisBeing specific to the lesson objectives is an alternative way of using the traffic light technique. It sacrifices an holistic, qualitative assessment for a precise, quantitative one.
21 Back to ContentsRandom FeedbackUse dice, short straws, roulette wheel, tombola, guess the number of sweets in the jar, to pick a group (or two) at random to feedback to the whole class on the lesson.This is not whole class feedback per se, but with the random aspect could be used over a number of lessons to achieve the same ends in a slightly different manner.
22 Back to ContentsTxt MsgDepends if you have the facility. Perhaps you could ask IT to sort it out…Set up a class mobile number on the computer and ask students to text in the plenary (or answers to questions, reflections etc.)You could then look at these or show the whole class and analyse together.
23 Back to ContentsPlay-DohAsk students to model answers to questions using Play-Doh. These will be clearly visible, if potentially esoteric.You could also ask students to model their feeling towards the learning – happy, OK, unsure etc.
24 Back to ContentsSilent DebateWrite a question or statement on 3-5 sheets of sugar paper. Place these around the room and tell students they must debate them in writing, in silence. Anyone caught talking has 30 seconds out.Students write their own comments and can comment on what their peers write as well.The information on the paper offers an insight into class thinking and could even be tracked by giving out different coloured pens.
25 Evaluation Tree Back to Contents Ask students where they feel they are on the tree in relation to the lesson or topic.Make the tree into a whole-class feedback tool by asking students to put a post-it note on the board for where they are at.Or, print off a large copy get students to write where they are.Could be used subsequently to pair students/make groups.
26 Smiley Faces Back to Contents Students draw smiley faces to indicate how comfortable they are with the topic.Understand some parts but not allReady to move onDo not understand and need to look at it againYou could spend a session with students where they make these, perhaps exaggerating the expressions, and then use them repeatedly.
27 Muddiest Point Back to Contents Another variation on mini- whiteboards.Students write down one or twopoints on which they are least clear.This could be from the previouslesson, the rest of the unit, thepreceding activity etc.The teacher and class can then seekto remedy the muddiness.
28 Seed to Tree This technique draws on drama and asks students to Back to ContentsSeed to TreeThis technique draws on drama and asks students toimagine their learning is like the life-cycle of a tree. Thetree starts off very small, as a seed, and grows to be verybig, as a full tree.Students consider where their learning is at and make the shape appropriate. Full trees can then be sent round to help seeds and saplings develop.
29 Forum Set up a forum on the computer (easy to do if you have a Back to ContentsForumSet up a forum on the computer (easy to do if you have amanaged learning environment such as Frog or Fronter)and ask students to comment either in the lesson or forhomework.The comments they leave can be used to assess whatstudents are having difficulties with and so forth.
30 Fingers A nuanced version of thumbs and traffic lights. Back to ContentsA nuanced version of thumbs and traffic lights.Students hold up fingers accordingly:1 – I am fully confident with the learning2 – I am confident with most of the learning3 – Some parts I am confident with, other bits I am not sure4 – I am only happy with a few parts of the learning5 – I am having difficulty understanding any part