Presentation on theme: "Toward Revolution: Creating a Culture of Solidarity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Toward Revolution: Creating a Culture of Solidarity Rising Disgust, Envy of American ElitesRepublicanismThe Glorious Revolution, 1688The Great AwakeningThe French Indian WarPontiac’s RebellionSuppressing Westward ExpansionTax, Trade and British LegislationThomas Hutchison and the Boston RadicalsReligion, Freemasonry and the Impulse Toward RebellionOutliers, Secret Societies and the Occult Among American Elites (Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson)
2 Culture of Solidarity What is a Culture of Solidarity? Cultures of Solidarity – Rick Fantasia- Usually Temporary Formations of Intense Solidarity in the Face of Oppression- Characterized by Common Interests or Culture which is not Permanently Ingrained in the Community or CultureSolidarity Fades as Struggle is Successful, Suppressed, or Fades AwayTemporary Alliance Because They are Alliances of Diverse Cultures – American Immigrants are prime examplesExamples: The American Revolution, Pirates, Labor MovementsCommon Experience more than Beliefs, Backgrounds
7 Republicanism The Glorious Revolution, 1688 England = constitutional monarchy(The English Constitution is unwritten)Republicanism: Important 18th Century political theory that holds that in order to preserve freedom1. The people must be virtuous2. The people must be independent (landholders)
9 Are there Evangelical Origins to the U.S.A.? George Whitfield and the “First Great Awakening”1730s and 1740s
10 Geopolitical Events: The French and Indian War, 1756-1763
11 Major George Washington, Jumonville Glen and the defeat at Fort NecessityLeads to a consistent tension between colonial militias and British Regulars
12 Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763 The First Great Native American Alliance Delaware, Seneca, Chippewa, Miami, Potawotomi and Huron
13 Pontiac’s Conspiracy; 1761-63 “It is important for us, my brothers, that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French.... Therefore, my brothers, we must all swear their destruction and wait no longer. Nothing prevents us; they are few in numbers, and we can accomplish it.”
14 What do the Colonists do after Pontiac’s Rebellion? Revolution or Boy Dance Party?
15 Proclamation Line, 1763English Refuse to Defend Settlers West of the LineForbid Westward Expansion
16 British Legislation Offensive to Colonists Sugar Act, 1764Stamp Act, 1765Declaratory Act, 1766The Declaratory Act proclaimed that Parliament "had hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America ... in all cases whatsoever". The phrasing of the act was intentionally unambiguous. In other words, the Declaratory Act of 1766 asserted that Parliament had the absolute power to make laws and changes to the colonial government, "in all cases whatsoever", even though the colonists were not represented in the Parliament.Townsend Duties, 1767- Boston Massacre- Gaspee AffairTea Act, 1773Intolerable Acts, 1774“ the inescapable truth remained, as recognized by the Chief Baron of Ireland’s Exchequer: in Ireland, “England has sown her laws like dragon’s teeth, and they have sprung up, armed men.”– The Many-Headed Hydra, 2001
17 “Mob Rules” in the Port Cities The Knowles Riots, 1747The Boston Massacre, 1770Adams thus made clear the working class origins of the revolution and the new nation, for the blood of the martyrs, as everyone knew, was the blood of a journeyman, an apprentice, and three wage laborers: a ropewalker and two seamen, one of whom was a half-black, half-Indian runaway slave who lived in the Bahama Islands. His name was Crispus Attucks. Of this martyr John Adams had said earlier, his “very looks would be enough to terrify any person,” or at least any person like Adams himself. – The Many Headed Hydra, 2001:Nassau Street, King Street and Golden Street Riots in New YorkCharleston and Norfolk Riots in Virginia
18 When a “Gentleman” asked a young man whether it was foolish for people to risk their lives, he was answered: “Master, Provisions are high and Trade is dead, that we are half starving and it is as well to die at once, as die by Inches.”– The Many Headed Hydra, 2001
19 Thomas Hutchinson, MA governor, 1771-1774: Wrong Man, Wrong Place, Wrong Time “Whoever looks upon them as an irregular mob will find himself much mistaken. They have men amongst them who know very well what they are about.”Lord Hugh Percy 1775
20 Boston Tea Party, December 1773 Samuel Adams and James Otis Secret Society: The Sons of LibertyGaspee Affair, 1772Boston Tea Party, December 1773Samuel Adams and James OtisIn 1764 Rhode Islanders attacked HMS St. John and in 1769 they burned a customs ship, HMS Liberty, on Goat Island in Newport harbor.
22 Tom Paine Born in England in 1737 Artisan: Staymaker, Founder of School for GirlsCame to the Colonies in 1774 after being invited by Ben FranklinCommon Sense published in January 1776 – Best Selling Pamphlet in coloniesPaine went on to challenge British and French Monarchies in EuropeSubsequently wrote the Rights of Man and the Age of Reason, as well as pamphlets listing over 200 direct contradictions in the Bible.
23 Of The Origin And Design Of Government In General Of The Origin And Design Of Government In General. With Concise Remarks On The English ConstitutionSome writers have so confounded society with government as to leave little or no distinction between them, whereas they are not only different but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil, in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer or are exposed to the same miseries by a government which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built on the ruins of the bowers of paradise. For were the impulses of conscience clear, uniform, and irresistibly obeyed, man would need no other lawgiver;
24 I know it is difficult to get over local or long-standing prejudices; yet if we will suffer ourselves to examine the component parts of the English constitution, we shall find them to be the base remains of two ancient tyrannies, compounded with some new republican materials:First, the remains of monarchical tyranny in the person of the king.Secondly, the remains of aristocratical tyranny in the persons of the peers.Thirdly, the new republican materials in the persons of the Commons, on whose virtue depends the freedom of England.The two first, by being hereditary, are independent of the people; wherefore, in a constitutional sense, they contribute nothing toward the freedom of the state.
25 Reading Tom PaineSignificance: Paine Crystallized the Move from Dissent to Revolution and Independence ideological elements colonists shared?Who was Paine’s Audience? What was his agenda?How did Paine challenge British political structure and thought in a way that opened the door to the idea of Independence?Was Common Sense simply propaganda, or really common sense?What arguments in Paine were truly revolutionary and how did they differ from colonists who wished to reconcile with Britain?
26 Religion and Revolution The Plot to Land a Bishop - Kenneth R. ElliotThe Great AwakeningJohn Mayhew – The Duty from God to ResistProtestants, Quakers and CatholicsThe Plot to Land a Bishop The supposed British plot, to impose Anglican bishops in the colonies, aroused ears that Americans would be persecuted for their religious convictions and further poisoned relations between Britain and the colonies. In this cartoon an indignant New England mob pushes a bishop's boat back towards England, frightening the prelate into praying, "Lord, now lettest thou thy Servant depart in Peace." The mob flings a volume of Calvin's Works at the bishop, while brandishing copies of John Locke and Algernon Sydney on government. The crowd shouts slogans: "Liberty & Freedom of Conscience"; "No Lords Spiritual or Temporal in New England"; and "shall they be obliged to maintain bishops that cannot maintain themselves.“ from the 1740s
30 John Mayhew, Abraham Keteltas and Their Sermons
31 "Here the apostle argues, that those who resist a reasonable and just authority, which is agreeable to the will of God, do really resist the will of God himself; and will, therefore, be punished by him, But how does this prove, that those who resist a lawless, unreasonable power, which is contrary to the will of God, do therein resist the will and ordinance of God? Is resisting those who resist God's will, the same thing with resisting God?" "Common tyrants, and public oppressors, are not entitled to obedience from their subjects, by virtue of any thing here laid down by the inspired apostle." "Suppose God requires a family of children, to obey their father and not to resist him...Suppose this parent at length runs distracted, and attempts, in his mad fit, to cut all his children's throats: Now, in this case, is not the reason before assigned, why these children should obey their parent while he continued of a sound mind, namely, their common good, a reason equally conclusive for disobeying and resisting him, since he is become delirious, and attempts their ruin?"
32 Deism and Enlightenment Thought God as discovered through the study of natureGod as the “watchmaker” – creating the universe, winding it up and letting it runThomas Jefferson and Christianity: The Jefferson BibleSeparating the ethical and the supernatural:“searching for diamonds in a dunghill”
33 Major Streams of Revolution Dissatisfaction with British FrontiersTension between militia and British RegularsDissatisfaction with English Tax Policy and Representation (or the lack of it)Religious AgitationOngoing rebelliousness of lower classesEnlightenment thought
34 The American Revolutions An intellectual revoltA Tax RevoltTraditional sources of thought about English libertyEconomic RevoltA class revolt (lower classes) - riotsA class revolt (upper classes) – Intellectual RevoltA religious revolt – sermons preached by ministers
35 America and the Larger World Republican Movement The move toward independence in the American English colonies was not simply a product of U.S. HistoryThe Carbonari in Italy, Freemasons in the British Isles, French Freemasons (the Temple of the Grand Orient through Jacobin Clubs) and eventually Young Europe would be pushing a world-wide revolution from the Mid-1700s for the next centuryIn this context, England’s American colonies were the prototype experiment.The “whole world” really was watching as Winthrop said of the Puritan colony at PlymouthU.S. independence is the initiating event
36 Occult Conspiracy? Founding of the Bavarian Illuminati, May 1st ,1776 American and French RevolutionsThe Enlightenment and Luciferian ThoughtPrometheus and Lucifer: Parallel MythsJefferson, Adams and the Great SealA mystery fable for AmericaEnglish and Scottish Masonry in AmericasInternecine struggles in the New WorldGeorge Washington vs. Thomas JeffersonJohn Adams?
37 Theories of America’s Occult Origins: Quite Real but What Does it Mean? Historians are quick to dismiss any particular significance in the theories involving Masonic, Illuminati, Luciferian, Jacobite or Jacobin influences on American History or GovernmentAmerican Exceptionalism demands a separationIe, The French were bloody-minded and irrational; we conducted a “civil revolution” – a family spat.The sheer volume of symbols, writings and events in which some Luciferian, Rosicrucian, Illuminati or Masonic component exists in U.S. History does or should give one pause to think.Washington’s and Jefferson’s own words confirm Illuminati in AmericaWashington was alarmed; Jefferson invited them.At some point, you have to wonder if these things have no relevance, why do they pop up so often and why are they represented as the symbols of the American Republic?Has American History demanded ignoring evidence?Where does that leave the integrity of U.S. History as a field?
38 Symbols for a New Republic? Mount Vernon, October 24, 1798.Revd Sir: I have your favor of the 17th. instant before me; and my only motive to trouble you with the receipt of this letter, is to explain, and correct a mistake which I perceive the hurry in which I am obliged, often, to write letters, have led you into.It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am.The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of separation). That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a separation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned George WashingtonJohn Adam’s’ Gravestone
40 Abadon and Apollyon“that which is below corresponds to that which is above, and that which is above, corresponds to that which is below, to accomplish miracles of the one thing.” -- Hermes Trismegistus, The Emerald TabletWas George Washington a Satanist?No, but he was a Luciferian to a certain extent and a man of great wealth.In another words he was interested in the ‘mystery religions’ to an extent through FreemasonryHow does that shape his image in history?
41 Once Used but Rejected Art and Statuary for the Capitol
42 Why does it matter?Why have historians avoided all of this as if our history may be turned on its head?Is avoidance of an accurate past imperative to producing a proper fable for the state?Or are historians just living in fear for their careers?Do they believe people simply don’t want to believe a history drawn from evidence or fact?What picture does it draw for the United States?
43 Jacobites and Jacobins The Class Differences Among Secret Societies Succession Wars in England: From the War of the Roses to Cromwell and who will control the English Throne .The Scottish Highland Clans became known as the Jacobites and rose up in 1715 and 1745 to try and reinstall the family of James II upon the English ThroneBoth revolts were fairly disastrous to the Highland Clans and many fled to America.
44 Who is Worthy to Lead?Secret societies each had their own conceptions of that here.The upper classes of Europe become the upper classes of America through the Illuminati and elites of many nations.Lower classes spend decades in revolt or become soldiers and pawns of elite schemes to dominate America: the Golden Circle, Confederate Army, KKK.Whether or not the Illuminati still exist, American history gets dicey whenever like elites attempt to wield undue influence.
45 Jacobite Migration to America Highlanders and Orangemen Move into the Southern, and Northeastern American Elite.Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Episcopalians and the Presbyterian Church Come to America.Poor Scotts come as indentured servants, farmers and miners.Settle in South and Appalachians
46 Jacobin Influence on America The Militancy of Early Scottish Rite Masonry.Rousseau, Voltaire, Republicanism and RevolutionJefferson, Paine, Hamilton and FranklinRousseau: We will force you to be free!The Grand Temple of the Orient and Jacobin ClubsFrench Masons, Scottish Masons and Rosicrucian Influences in the South and West.Jacobins as well as Jacobites Infiltrate Scottish Rite Mason Temples in the Colonies.The Correspondence Clubs, Sons of Liberty and Knights of Malta.Southern Military Tradition: Virginia Military Academy, West Point and Princeton