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Toward Revolution: Creating a Culture of Solidarity

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1 Toward Revolution: Creating a Culture of Solidarity
Rising Disgust, Envy of American Elites Republicanism The Glorious Revolution, 1688 The Great Awakening The French Indian War Pontiac’s Rebellion Suppressing Westward Expansion Tax, Trade and British Legislation Thomas Hutchison and the Boston Radicals Religion, Freemasonry and the Impulse Toward Rebellion Outliers, Secret Societies and the Occult Among American Elites (Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson)

2 Culture of Solidarity What is a Culture of Solidarity?
Cultures of Solidarity – Rick Fantasia - Usually Temporary Formations of Intense Solidarity in the Face of Oppression - Characterized by Common Interests or Culture which is not Permanently Ingrained in the Community or Culture Solidarity Fades as Struggle is Successful, Suppressed, or Fades Away Temporary Alliance Because They are Alliances of Diverse Cultures – American Immigrants are prime examples Examples: The American Revolution, Pirates, Labor Movements Common Experience more than Beliefs, Backgrounds

3 Monticello

4 Monticello Blenheim Park

5 New England Towns and Convent Gardens, London, 1746

6 William Hogarth, “Gin Lane,” 1751

7 Republicanism The Glorious Revolution, 1688
England = constitutional monarchy (The English Constitution is unwritten) Republicanism: Important 18th Century political theory that holds that in order to preserve freedom 1. The people must be virtuous 2. The people must be independent (landholders)

8 The Liberty Tree And Tax Revolts

9 Are there Evangelical Origins to the U.S.A.?
George Whitfield and the “First Great Awakening” 1730s and 1740s

10 Geopolitical Events: The French and Indian War, 1756-1763

11 Major George Washington, Jumonville Glen
and the defeat at Fort Necessity Leads to a consistent tension between colonial militias and British Regulars

12 Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763 The First Great Native American Alliance
Delaware, Seneca, Chippewa, Miami, Potawotomi and Huron

13 Pontiac’s Conspiracy; 1761-63
“It is important for us, my brothers, that we exterminate from our lands this nation which seeks only to destroy us. You see as well as I that we can no longer supply our needs, as we have done from our brothers, the French.... Therefore, my brothers, we must all swear their destruction and wait no longer. Nothing prevents us; they are few in numbers, and we can accomplish it.”

14 What do the Colonists do after Pontiac’s Rebellion?
Revolution or Boy Dance Party?

15 Proclamation Line, 1763 English Refuse to Defend Settlers West of the Line Forbid Westward Expansion

16 British Legislation Offensive to Colonists
Sugar Act, 1764 Stamp Act, 1765 Declaratory Act, 1766 The Declaratory Act proclaimed that Parliament "had hath, and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America ... in all cases whatsoever". The phrasing of the act was intentionally unambiguous. In other words, the Declaratory Act of 1766 asserted that Parliament had the absolute power to make laws and changes to the colonial government, "in all cases whatsoever", even though the colonists were not represented in the Parliament. Townsend Duties, 1767 - Boston Massacre - Gaspee Affair Tea Act, 1773 Intolerable Acts, 1774 “ the inescapable truth remained, as recognized by the Chief Baron of Ireland’s Exchequer: in Ireland, “England has sown her laws like dragon’s teeth, and they have sprung up, armed men.” – The Many-Headed Hydra, 2001

17 “Mob Rules” in the Port Cities
The Knowles Riots, 1747 The Boston Massacre, 1770 Adams thus made clear the working class origins of the revolution and the new nation, for the blood of the martyrs, as everyone knew, was the blood of a journeyman, an apprentice, and three wage laborers: a ropewalker and two seamen, one of whom was a half-black, half-Indian runaway slave who lived in the Bahama Islands. His name was Crispus Attucks. Of this martyr John Adams had said earlier, his “very looks would be enough to terrify any person,” or at least any person like Adams himself. – The Many Headed Hydra, 2001 :Nassau Street, King Street and Golden Street Riots in New York Charleston and Norfolk Riots in Virginia

18 When a “Gentleman” asked a young man whether it was foolish for people to risk their lives, he was answered: “Master, Provisions are high and Trade is dead, that we are half starving and it is as well to die at once, as die by Inches.” – The Many Headed Hydra, 2001

19 Thomas Hutchinson, MA governor, 1771-1774: Wrong Man, Wrong Place, Wrong Time
“Whoever looks upon them as an irregular mob will find himself much mistaken. They have men amongst them who know very well what they are about.” Lord Hugh Percy 1775

20 Boston Tea Party, December 1773 Samuel Adams and James Otis
Secret Society: The Sons of Liberty Gaspee Affair, 1772 Boston Tea Party, December 1773 Samuel Adams and James Otis In 1764 Rhode Islanders attacked HMS St. John and in 1769 they burned a customs ship, HMS Liberty, on Goat Island in Newport harbor.

21 Tom Paine and Common Sense

22 Tom Paine Born in England in 1737
Artisan: Staymaker, Founder of School for Girls Came to the Colonies in 1774 after being invited by Ben Franklin Common Sense published in January 1776 – Best Selling Pamphlet in colonies Paine went on to challenge British and French Monarchies in Europe Subsequently wrote the Rights of Man and the Age of Reason, as well as pamphlets listing over 200 direct contradictions in the Bible.

23 Of The Origin And Design Of Government In General
Of The Origin And Design Of Government In General. With Concise Remarks On The English Constitution Some writers have so confounded society with government as to leave little or no distinction between them, whereas they are not only different but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher. Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil, in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer or are exposed to the same miseries by a government which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer. Government, like dress, is the badge of lost innocence; the palaces of kings are built on the ruins of the bowers of paradise. For were the impulses of conscience clear, uniform, and irresistibly obeyed, man would need no other lawgiver;

24 I know it is difficult to get over local or long-standing prejudices; yet if we will suffer ourselves to examine the component parts of the English constitution, we shall find them to be the base remains of two ancient tyrannies, compounded with some new republican materials: First, the remains of monarchical tyranny in the person of the king. Secondly, the remains of aristocratical tyranny in the persons of the peers. Thirdly, the new republican materials in the persons of the Commons, on whose virtue depends the freedom of England. The two first, by being hereditary, are independent of the people; wherefore, in a constitutional sense, they contribute nothing toward the freedom of the state.

25 Reading Tom Paine Significance: Paine Crystallized the Move from Dissent to Revolution and Independence ideological elements colonists shared? Who was Paine’s Audience? What was his agenda? How did Paine challenge British political structure and thought in a way that opened the door to the idea of Independence? Was Common Sense simply propaganda, or really common sense? What arguments in Paine were truly revolutionary and how did they differ from colonists who wished to reconcile with Britain?

26 Religion and Revolution
The Plot to Land a Bishop - Kenneth R. Elliot The Great Awakening John Mayhew – The Duty from God to Resist Protestants, Quakers and Catholics The Plot to Land a Bishop The supposed British plot, to impose Anglican bishops in the colonies, aroused ears that Americans would be persecuted for their religious convictions and further poisoned relations between Britain and the colonies. In this cartoon an indignant New England mob pushes a bishop's boat back towards England, frightening the prelate into praying, "Lord, now lettest thou thy Servant depart in Peace." The mob flings a volume of Calvin's Works at the bishop, while brandishing copies of John Locke and Algernon Sydney on government. The crowd shouts slogans: "Liberty & Freedom of Conscience"; "No Lords Spiritual or Temporal in New England"; and "shall they be obliged to maintain bishops that cannot maintain themselves.“ from the 1740s

27 George Whitfield and the “Great Awakening”


29 Colonial Anglican Church

30 John Mayhew, Abraham Keteltas and Their Sermons

31 "Here the apostle argues, that those who resist a reasonable and just authority, which is agreeable to the will of God, do really resist the will of God himself; and will, therefore, be punished by him, But how does this prove, that those who resist a lawless, unreasonable power, which is contrary to the will of God, do therein resist the will and ordinance of God? Is resisting those who resist God's will, the same thing with resisting God?" "Common tyrants, and public oppressors, are not entitled to obedience from their subjects, by virtue of any thing here laid down by the inspired apostle." "Suppose God requires a family of children, to obey their father and not to resist him...Suppose this parent at length runs distracted, and attempts, in his mad fit, to cut all his children's throats: Now, in this case, is not the reason before assigned, why these children should obey their parent while he continued of a sound mind, namely, their common good, a reason equally conclusive for disobeying and resisting him, since he is become delirious, and attempts their ruin?"

32 Deism and Enlightenment Thought
God as discovered through the study of nature God as the “watchmaker” – creating the universe, winding it up and letting it run Thomas Jefferson and Christianity: The Jefferson Bible Separating the ethical and the supernatural: “searching for diamonds in a dunghill”

33 Major Streams of Revolution
Dissatisfaction with British Frontiers Tension between militia and British Regulars Dissatisfaction with English Tax Policy and Representation (or the lack of it) Religious Agitation Ongoing rebelliousness of lower classes Enlightenment thought

34 The American Revolutions
An intellectual revolt A Tax Revolt Traditional sources of thought about English liberty Economic Revolt A class revolt (lower classes) - riots A class revolt (upper classes) – Intellectual Revolt A religious revolt – sermons preached by ministers

35 America and the Larger World Republican Movement
The move toward independence in the American English colonies was not simply a product of U.S. History The Carbonari in Italy, Freemasons in the British Isles, French Freemasons (the Temple of the Grand Orient through Jacobin Clubs) and eventually Young Europe would be pushing a world-wide revolution from the Mid-1700s for the next century In this context, England’s American colonies were the prototype experiment. The “whole world” really was watching as Winthrop said of the Puritan colony at Plymouth U.S. independence is the initiating event

36 Occult Conspiracy? Founding of the Bavarian Illuminati, May 1st ,1776
American and French Revolutions The Enlightenment and Luciferian Thought Prometheus and Lucifer: Parallel Myths Jefferson, Adams and the Great Seal A mystery fable for America English and Scottish Masonry in Americas Internecine struggles in the New World George Washington vs. Thomas Jefferson John Adams?

37 Theories of America’s Occult Origins: Quite Real but What Does it Mean?
Historians are quick to dismiss any particular significance in the theories involving Masonic, Illuminati, Luciferian, Jacobite or Jacobin influences on American History or Government American Exceptionalism demands a separation Ie, The French were bloody-minded and irrational; we conducted a “civil revolution” – a family spat. The sheer volume of symbols, writings and events in which some Luciferian, Rosicrucian, Illuminati or Masonic component exists in U.S. History does or should give one pause to think. Washington’s and Jefferson’s own words confirm Illuminati in America Washington was alarmed; Jefferson invited them. At some point, you have to wonder if these things have no relevance, why do they pop up so often and why are they represented as the symbols of the American Republic? Has American History demanded ignoring evidence? Where does that leave the integrity of U.S. History as a field?

38 Symbols for a New Republic?
Mount Vernon, October 24, 1798. Revd Sir: I have your favor of the 17th. instant before me; and my only motive to trouble you with the receipt of this letter, is to explain, and correct a mistake which I perceive the hurry in which I am obliged, often, to write letters, have led you into. It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am. The idea that I meant to convey, was, that I did not believe that the Lodges of Free Masons in this Country had, as Societies, endeavoured to propagate the diabolical tenets of the first, or pernicious principles of the latter (if they are susceptible of separation). That Individuals of them may have done it, or that the founder, or instrument employed to found, the Democratic Societies in the United States, may have had these objects; and actually had a separation of the People from their Government in view, is too evident to be questioned George Washington John Adam’s’ Gravestone

39 Jefferson to Madison on Weishaupt

40 Abadon and Apollyon “that which is below corresponds to that which is above, and that which is above, corresponds to that which is below, to accomplish miracles of the one thing.”  -- Hermes Trismegistus, The Emerald Tablet Was George Washington a Satanist? No, but he was a Luciferian to a certain extent and a man of great wealth. In another words he was interested in the ‘mystery religions’ to an extent through Freemasonry How does that shape his image in history?

41 Once Used but Rejected Art and Statuary for the Capitol

42 Why does it matter? Why have historians avoided all of this as if our history may be turned on its head? Is avoidance of an accurate past imperative to producing a proper fable for the state? Or are historians just living in fear for their careers? Do they believe people simply don’t want to believe a history drawn from evidence or fact? What picture does it draw for the United States?

43 Jacobites and Jacobins The Class Differences Among Secret Societies
Succession Wars in England: From the War of the Roses to Cromwell and who will control the English Throne . The Scottish Highland Clans became known as the Jacobites and rose up in 1715 and 1745 to try and reinstall the family of James II upon the English Throne Both revolts were fairly disastrous to the Highland Clans and many fled to America.

44 Who is Worthy to Lead? Secret societies each had their own conceptions of that here. The upper classes of Europe become the upper classes of America through the Illuminati and elites of many nations. Lower classes spend decades in revolt or become soldiers and pawns of elite schemes to dominate America: the Golden Circle, Confederate Army, KKK. Whether or not the Illuminati still exist, American history gets dicey whenever like elites attempt to wield undue influence.

45 Jacobite Migration to America
Highlanders and Orangemen Move into the Southern, and Northeastern American Elite. Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Episcopalians and the Presbyterian Church Come to America. Poor Scotts come as indentured servants, farmers and miners. Settle in South and Appalachians

46 Jacobin Influence on America
The Militancy of Early Scottish Rite Masonry. Rousseau, Voltaire, Republicanism and Revolution Jefferson, Paine, Hamilton and Franklin Rousseau: We will force you to be free! The Grand Temple of the Orient and Jacobin Clubs French Masons, Scottish Masons and Rosicrucian Influences in the South and West. Jacobins as well as Jacobites Infiltrate Scottish Rite Mason Temples in the Colonies. The Correspondence Clubs, Sons of Liberty and Knights of Malta. Southern Military Tradition: Virginia Military Academy, West Point and Princeton

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