Presentation on theme: "Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray"— Presentation transcript:
1 Turn in your psychoanalytic perspective…………….put in the tray Get out your vocab HW
2 Warm UpCome up with 5 words that are central to the psychoanalytic perspectiveList 3 tactics Freud used to try to reach someone’s unconsciousList 3 criticisms of FreudIf someone is fixated in the Oral stage, how will they behave?If someone is fixated in the Anal Stage, how will they behave?What happens in the Phallic stage?What is the point of Defense Mechanism?List and explain 3 defense mechanismWho are Neo-Freudians?What is the difference between the Id, Ego and Superego.List 2 projective tests
3 Chapter 15 pt. 2: Personality and the Trait, Humanistic, and Social Cognitive Perspectives Pg. 513 picture
4 The Trait PerspectiveThe father of the trait perspective of personality is Gordon Allport.The trait perspective looks to DESCRIBE personality in terms of fundamental traits: pattern of behavior or disposition to feel or act as assessed by self-reported inventories or peer reports.
5 Myers –Briggs Type Indicator 126 questions which ask patients for preferencesExample- Feeling or Thinking TypeUsed in the business world
8 Method used For Measuring Personality for Trait Perspective Personality Inventory: a questionnaire that is usually true/false in which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.Weakness of This Measuring Device?
9 Example of Personality Inventory Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: most widely used personality test. Purpose was to identify emotional disorders but is also now used for screening purposes for employment.Test is an example of being empirically derived test: having pool of test questions that discriminate between groups. (Ex: Certain questions Depressed vs. Normal were likely to answer differently)
10 Self Reports Most widely used method Simply asking friends and family about you
11 Dimensions of Personality UNSTABLESTABLEcholericmelancholicphlegmaticsanguineINTROVERTEDEXTRAVERTEDMoodyAnxiousRigidSoberPessimisticReservedUnsociableQuietSociableOutgoingTalkativeResponsiveEasygoingLivelyCarefreeLeadershipPassiveCarefulThoughtfulPeacefulControlledReliableEven-temperedCalmTouchyRestlessAggressiveExcitableChangeableImpulsiveOptimisticActiveThrough factor analysis, the Ensencks identified dimensions of personality were as introverted (keep to yourself)/ extroverted (outgoing) and stable/unstable.
12 The Big Five Expands Upon The Dimensions of Personality The “Big Five” Personality FactorsTrait Dimension DescriptionEmotional Stability Calm versus anxiousSecure versus insecureSelf-satisfied versus self-pityingExtraversion Sociable versus retiringFun-loving versus soberAffectionate versus reservedOpenness Imaginative versus practicalPreference for variety versuspreference for routineIndependent versus conformingAgreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthlessTrusting versus suspiciousHelpful versus uncooperativeConscientiousness Organized versus disorganizedCareful versus carelDisciplined versus impulsive
13 Big 5 Research Explores These Questions 1. How Stable are these Traits?In adulthood quite stable2. How heritable are they?About 50%3. How well do they apply to other cultures?Reasonably well4. Do the Big Five traits predict other personal attributes?YesHighly conscientious people tend to also be morning people
14 Evaluating the Trait Perspective Person-Situation ControversyTraits exist. We differ. And our difference matterAverages in traits are consistentConsistency of Expressive StyleTraits ( level of expressiveness) can remain hiddenBut in most situations a person’s true personality will come through
15 The Humanistic Perspective The two founders of the Humanistic Perspective are Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.The Humanistic Perspective focuses on the growth potential of healthy people. They focus on the power of free will and how people view themselves as a whole in pursuit of growth.MaslowRogers
16 Maslow’s Main Idea1. Self Actualization: ultimate goal in hierarchy of needs; meet one’s potential.
17 Carl Rogers’ Person Centered Approach Believed all humans had potential for growth; just need climate that has:Genuineness (truthful/sincere)Acceptance (unconditional positive regard)Empathy (try to understand others)Unconditional Positive Regard: attitude of total acceptance towards another person.
18 Humanistic Perspective’s Central Concept to Understanding Personality Self-Concept: all thoughts and feelings about ourselves: “Who am I?”Related terms to understand Self Concept:Self Esteem: feelings of self-worth.Self-Serving Bias: a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
19 Criticism of Humanist Perspective Maslow’s concepts are vague and might just be his own values.Too much focus on individual.Ignores human capacity for evil.
20 Warm Up 1. Describe the Trait Theory 2.Describe the MMPI Test (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)3.Describe the Myers Brigg Test4. List one criticism of the Trait Theory5.Describe the Humanistic Perspective6. What does it mean to be self-actualized?7.Describe Unconditional positive regard8. List one criticism of the humanistic perspective
21 Astrology and Palm Readings million dollars on psychic hotlinesPalm reading, horoscopes and handwriting analysis DO NOT WORK
22 Astrology and Palm Readings How do they do it?1. People are similar in many ways – “ I sense you’re nursing a grudge against someone”2.The Barnum Effect-ppl have a strong tendency to believe that traits apply specifically to them especially if these traits are favorable and stated in a general way3. They read our clothing, physical features, nonverbal gestures and reactions to what we say4. John Edwards- “Throws many things at the wall, sees what sticks and goes with it”
24 Social Cognitive Perspective Father of Social Cognitive Perspective is Albert Bandura.Social Cognitive Perspective: emphasizes the importance of external events (society) and how we interpret them (cognition).ConditioningModeling
25 Personality is Made Up of Interlocking Forces Reciprocal Determinism: is the idea that environment influences personality AND personality influences the environment.Same environment can have completely different effects on different people because of how they interpret and react to external events.You choose your environment and it then shapes you
26 Social Cognitive Perspective Focuses on Personal Control Personal Control: sense of controlling the environment rather than feeling helpless.Study Personal Control in 2 ways:1. Correlates ppls feelings of control with their behaviors and achievements2. Experiment- raise and lower ppls sense of control and rate the effects
27 Locus of Control Achievement is highest when people have: Internal Locus of Control: idea that one control’s their own destiny.
28 External Locus of Control Can Lead to Learned Helplessness External Locus of Control: perception that chance or outside forces beyond one’s personal control determines one’s fate.Learned Helplessness: hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.Ex: Dog being uncontrollably shocked for period; will not later escape when time arrives.
29 Optimism Do you view yourself as optimistic or pessimistic? Optimistic ppl are more productive, health and happyExcessive optimism can be bad
30 Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective Most widely accepted approach by current psychologists since it takes aspects from learning and cognition.Criticized by some because it fails to consider possible unconscious motives and focuses too much on environment not enough on inner traits.
31 Exploring the Self Possible Selves Visions and goals we have for ourselvesDreams led to achievementsSpotlight EffectPPl are less aware of us than we thinkSelf Esteem-PPl who feel good about themselves are better offLow Self Esteem comes in a variety of forms
32 Exploring the Self Self Serving Bias Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorablyPeople accept more credit for goods things more than bad thingsMost ppl see themselves as better than averageSurvey Question: Who is most likely to go to heaven? Who beats out Princess Diana, Gandhi, MLK Jr., and Mother Theresa?
33 Exploring the SelfIf Self Serving Bias prevails why do ppl put themselves down?1. Strategy for compliments2. Prepare for possible failure3. Pertains to “old” self
34 Individualism vs. Collectivism giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identificationsCollectivismgiving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining one’s identity accordingly