In what way were philosophes similar to humanists?
Match NameDetail BayleA Attack privilege and question tradition DiderotB Genius is the key to progress and it’s only available in rational societies VoltaireC Passion and nature; society corrupts TurgotD Find evidence rather than accept things at face value RousseauE Satirist of English corruption and greed HogarthF Preferred English form of government or enlightened despotism
Political = Enlightened Despots constitutionalabsolutemonarchy Where would you place enlightened despotism?
Characteristics of En. Despots Centralization of the state But the ruler is NOT above the state, like Louis XIV (the state is me) Extension of citizenship Rights Tolerant State above church Secular Economically mercantilist Encourage exports independence
Despotic Words Control Force Intimidate Intolerance
Rousseau Was Different PhilosophesRousseau Progress“man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains.” State of nature preferred: “our minds have been corrupted in proportion as our arts and sciences have made advances toward their perfection.” Lifelong theme: innocence vs. experience SalonsCritical of salons Individualism /scared of democracy Community (general will) – dirty d?
Enlightened PSD Analysis If Diderot’s “Intolerance” were your PSD excerpt, what would you have to research (1 or 2 sources) in order to answer the contextualizing questions? the Catholic Church in France in the mid-1700s How would you answer the question of how it extends your understanding of the topic?
PSD Excerpts Frederick the Great and Catherine the Great = enlightened despots from Prussia and Russia, respectively. Rousseau = sort of a philosophe. Thomas Paine = a British pamphlet writer who came to the American colonies in the 1770s while they were having trouble with their mother country (Britain) and urged them to seek independence (a divorce from mom). Sarcastic language. Thomas Jefferson = enlightened American writer, statesman, who had read Locke and wrote the document that officially said the colonies want a divorce from their mom (Britain). Jonathan Swift = Irish writer in sympathy with Catholic Irish people who were being oppressed by Protestant British rule. Adam Smith = enlightened British economist who wrote about laissez- faire, not mercantilism, being the way natural law works in the economy.