Presentation on theme: "HOW TO DESCRIBE A CHART,GRAPH OR TABLE"— Presentation transcript:
1 HOW TO DESCRIBE A CHART,GRAPH OR TABLE Intermediate2/Higher ESOLStudy Related Contexts
2 OUTLINE PLAN INTRODUCTION: Topic sentence describing what the data (displayed as a table, graph or chart) is about.GENERAL STATEMENT(S) ABOUT THE DATA:What overall trends can you see?DETAILED STATEMENTS ABOUT THE DATA :Focus on the details that are relevant for your essay.CONCLUSION:one sentence which sums up what this data tells us or why it is important to you argument.
3 IDENTIFYING WHAT THE GRAPH IS ABOUT KEY WORDS:London UndergroundNumber of passengers/peopleTravelling/using the underground during the day
4 PUTTING TOGETHER YOUR TOPIC SENTENCE HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES:The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London Underground station over the course of a day.This graph shows the number of passengers travelling on the London Underground during the day.The graph illustrates passenger numbers using the London Underground during the course of the day
5 HOW TO DESCRIBE TRENDS GO UP GO DOWN ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________decreaseincreaseclimbdropfalldeclinerisegrowdip
6 MAKING A GENERAL STATEMENT ABOUT THE DATA The graph shows/illustrates how passenger numbers grow/increase/climb/rise during rush hour.The graph shows/illustrates how passenger numbers fall/decrease/drop/decline/dip when rush hour has ended.
7 DESCRIBING TRENDSGOING INTO DETAIL—You need to describe in detail particular aspects of the data that prove the point that you are trying to make in the essay.To do this you can use a verb and an adverb e.g Sales rose sharply.Or an adjective and a noun. This is normally used with There is/are ……There was/were…..There has been / have been…..e.g There was a sharp rise in sales.(Using an adjective and a noun is slightly more formal.)
8 DESCRIBING UP TRENDS USING NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES (amount of change )(speed of change)NOUNAdramaticsharpsubstantialconsiderablesignificantslightconsistentrapidquickswiftslowsteadyimmediateriseincreaserecovery growthThe graph/chart shows a.. (adjective + noun)…in passenger numbers during……..There is/was a.. (adjective+noun)…in passenger numbers during………..
9 DESCRIBING UP TRENDS USING VERBS ADVERBS(amount of change )(speed of change)riseincreaserecovergo upgrowdramaticallysharplysubstantiallyconsiderablysignificantlyslightlyconsistentlyrapidlyquicklyswiftlyslowlysteadilyimmediately
10 WHICH TENSE SHOULD I USE? SIMPLEPRESENTSIMPLE PASTPRESENT PERFECTrise/risesIncrease/increasesrecover/recoversgo up/goes upgrow/growsroseincreasedrecoveredwent upgrewhas/have risenhas/have increasedhas/have recoveredhas/have gone uphas/have grown
11 Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! DESCRIBING UP TRENDSPassenger numbers rose considerably between 6am and 8 am with a rise of travellers from 100 to 400.The number of underground travellers increases significantly between the hours of 6 and 8 am peaking at 400 passengers.Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!
12 DESCRIBING DOWN TRENDS USING NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES (amount of change )(speed of change)NOUNAdramaticsharpsubstantialconsiderablesignificantslightconsistentrapidquickswiftslowsteadyimmediatefalldecreasedeclinedropping offThe graph/chart shows a.. (adjective + noun)…in passenger numbers during……..There is/was a.. (adjective+noun)…in passenger numbers during………..
13 DESCRIBING DOWN TRENDS USING VERBS ADVERBS(amount of change )(speed of change)falldecreasedeclinego downdrop offdramaticallysharplysubstantiallyconsiderablysignificantlyslightlyconsistentlyrapidlyquicklyswiftlyslowlysteadilyimmediately
14 WHICH TENSE SHOULD I USE? SIMPLE PRESENTSIMPLE PASTPRESENT PERFECT fall/fallsdecrease/decreases decline/declinesgo down/goes down level off/levels offdrop off/drops off felldecreaseddeclinedwent downlevelled offdropped offhas/have fallenhas/have decreasedhas/have declinedhas/have gone downhas/have levelled offhas/have dropped off
15 DESCRIBING DOWN TRENDS The number of passengers decreased consistently after 8 am from 400 passengers down to 200 by 10 am.Passenger numbers drop off steadily after 8 am to reach 200 by 10 am.Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!
16 HOW TO DESCRIBE TRENDS remain steady fluctuate increase slightly decrease dramaticallydecrease slightlyincrease rapidlyrise dramaticallyplungedrop suddenlystay the samego up a littlego down slightly
17 MORE VERBS AND NOUNS VERBS NOUNS NO CHANGE flatten out stabilise level offhold steadyremain stablenot changecontinue to be stableUP AND DOWNfluctuateTO ITS MAXIMUM POINTpeaka flattening outa stabilisationa levelling off UP AND DOWNa fluctuation a peak
18 WHICH TENSE SHOULD I USE SIMPLEPRESENTSIMPLE PASTPRESENT PERFECTflatten out/flattens outstabilise/stabiliseslevel off/levels offhold steady/holds steadyremain stable/remains stabledo/does not changecontinue/continues to be stablefluctuate/fluctuatespeak/peaksflattened outstabilisedlevelled offheld steadyremained stabledid not changecontinued to be stablefluctuatedpeaked have/has flattened outhave/has stabilisedhave/has levelled offhave/has held steadyhave/has remained stablehave/has not changedhave/has continued to be stablehave/has fluctuatedhave/has peaked
19 DESCRIBING OTHER TRENDS Passenger numbers peak at 8 am reaching 400 and again later in the afternoon at 6pm.The number of travellers using the underground peaked during the morning and evening rush hour at 8 am and 6 pm when they reached 400.Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!
20 DESCRIBING OTHER TRENDS Passenger numbers flatten out between the hours of 12 and 2 pm where they remain at 300.Passenger numbers stabilised from 12pm to 2 pm where they remained at 300.Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!
21 DESCRIBING OTHER TRENDS Passenger numbers fluctuate considerably throughout the day recording the biggest fluctuations between rush hour.Passenger numbers fluctuated significantly during the day peaking at 400 and dropping off to 100.Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!
22 AND FINALLY………………. SUMMING UP/CONCLUDING · In summary we can see that...· To sum up...· In conclusion it can be seen that….· It can be concluded from the data/information that…· Overall the data shows/indicates/suggests…· Summarising the findings it can be seen that..· Overall it appears that..
23 Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses! YOUR CONCLUSIONIn summary we can see that the busiest times on the London Underground are at 8 am and at 6 pm. The quietest times are 6 am, 4 pm and after 8 pm. Passenger numbers remain quite steady during the day.Remember to be consistent with your use of tenses!