Presentation on theme: "Proposal Arguments Practical Proposals solve an immediate problem narrow, concrete exact & precise specifics in its call to action Policy Proposals broad."— Presentation transcript:
Proposal Arguments Practical Proposals solve an immediate problem narrow, concrete exact & precise specifics in its call to action Policy Proposals broad outline and shape of course regional, national & international scope weighs positives & negatives
Special Problems Need for Presence (Ethos): when the reader immediately senses the writers words engage intellects and emotions (need for pathos) truth + consistency + experience of arguments life = success accepting judgment vs. acting on that judgment
Ok, How? Appeal directly to audiences emotions: details, brief scenes, compelling examples Show the seriousness of the problem/ consequences of inaction Use figurative language, metaphor, analogy to make vivid and real
In addition Law of Inertia: tendency of all things to remain at rest if possible, or if it aint broke, dont fix it Writer has burden of proof Base argument not on present evils, but evils of inaction/lost potential
And… Difficulty in Predicting X, in the future, will cause Y, is difficult All that can go wrong in causal argument... Difficulty in Evaluating Cant be measured/cant be ignored Benefits for whom? Cost-benefit analysis
Developing the Proposal 3 part structure: 1)description of problem (definition/history) 2)proposed solution 3)justification for proposed solution (causes/effects) note: proposals often include because clauses
Alternate structure 1)Identify the problem (definition/history) 2)Describe the reasons for the problem (causes & effects) 3)Propose the solution 4)Justify the solution (reasons why it will work)
Gain readers understanding: what are the consequences, benefits Give presence: how does the problem affect people?
Show the Specifics of the Proposal - - Stress the feasibility of the solution …including costs -- Show how the proposal will solve the problem (partially or wholly) -- Listen to skeptics and refute
Justification: Convincing the Audience -- clarity of proposal -- feasibility of implementation -- persuasive reasons
Examples We should do X … because X will lead to good consequences Ex: Insurance companies should pay for regular childrens wellness care (proposal claim)… because paying now might save more extensive medical costs in the future (causal claim)
Ex: Taxpayer funding for Clean Elections candidates should be withdrawn (proposal claim)… because the government should only be involved in administration of elections, not funding of candidates (intended audience opposes government involvement)
Ex: Taxpayer funding for Clean Elections candidates should be continue (proposal claim)… because the government should promote opportunities for all candidates desiring to run, regardless of wealth (intended audience encourages government involvement and open elections)
Generating Reasons We should (should not) do X because X leads to these good (bad) consequences: ___________, ______________, ______________, ___________...