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How Microsoft IT Architected and Deployed Unified Communications

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2 How Microsoft IT Architected and Deployed Unified Communications
Jonathan R. Lewis Sr. IT Manager, Australia Microsoft Corporation

3 Microsoft IT Purpose Be Microsoft’s first and best customer
3/25/2017 Microsoft IT Purpose Be Microsoft’s first and best customer Ensure security of Microsoft’s digital assets Drive productivity of our customers, clients, and partners Run a world class information technology (IT) environment Be first and best customer The primary business of Microsoft is software design. Consequently, the Microsoft IT group has a mission that is unique among global enterprises. For example, in addition to running the enterprise IT utility, Microsoft IT is one of the early adopters, testing and deploying Microsoft software before customer release. This process is known internally as “eating our own dog food.” However, all dog food efforts must show tangible business benefits to Microsoft beyond testing for scale and load in a real-world production environment. Eating our own dog food results in a very high rate of change in the environment. The ratio of deployments to servers and desktops is higher than other enterprises of comparable size. Run a world-class utility Do all of the above while providing world-class availability, reliability, and cost effectiveness in an environment with very high client expectations, a technically skilled user base, and a worldwide scope? If you think about it these two top IT priorities are pretty much in direct conflict  This is the delicate line we walk internally in IT. November 2006 © 2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.

4 Microsoft IT Data Single Instance SAP (1.5Tb Db)
120,000 server accounts 300,000+ PCs and devices Apps Single Instance SAP 1,371LOB apps Devices 300K PCs 10K data centre servers 10K network devices Incident Mgmt 90K help desk calls/month 7K infrastructure Service Requests/month 6K changes/month Dublin Redmond Silicon Valley Monthly Remote Access 45K RAS 49K OWA 18K RPC over http The Function of ITG The IT organization at Microsoft is unique in terms of the broad variety of responsibilities. The first role, like any other large organization, is to run the IT service. This is developing and maintaining information technology systems and solutions that help Microsoft employees do their jobs efficiently and effectively. Another aspect is providing a robust application and infrastructure architecture as the foundation for building line of business applications. We provide services ranging from end user support and telecommunications management to server and network operations. This includes managing the connectivity for over 150,000 PCs worldwide. We ensure that the nearly 50,000 employees and 5,000 contractors and 17,000 vendors in over 400* MS locations around the world are able to access the corporate network 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Operating Environment The environment is: Dynamic. The rate of change is very high. Microsoft continues to grow, and within the past year Microsoft has also seen an increase in mergers and acquisitions activity. Large. It includes four enterprise data centers, but 450 locations worldwide. IT-managed infrastructure exists at over 200 of those sites. A real world environment. Users expect production quality services, even when deploying beta software. Singapore 92,000 end users 89 countries MSIT supports over 400 sites globally; 25% Internet connected only 3M+ messages per day internally, 10M externally; 8M filtered out 99.99% availability 7,000,000 remote connections/month

5 Before (Live Communication Server 2005)...
So now let’s take a quick look at the before picture of the architecture when we were running on Live Communication Server (LCS)

6 Central Resource Forest Design
3/25/2017 Central Resource Forest Design Central Resource Forest Server Pool Architecture The Live Communications Server 2005 server pool architecture deployed by Microsoft IT is illustrated on this slide. This pool was deployed in one location in our main data center in Tukwila which is just about 20 miles south of our corporate headquarters in Redmond Washington and served all SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) services for users world wide. Having all Microsoft employees and contractors configured in the central resource forest as either local user objects or imported contact objects was sufficient for Live Communications Server 2005 to provide security enhanced, real-time presence (briefly describe presence) and communications services to all users regardless of where in the world they were located physically or what domain they were in. There was absolutely no LCS infrastructure deployed anywhere else in the world. This highly centralized architecture served us well when our focus was on IM and presence specifically. Being so highly centralized it provided us with a lot of operational efficiency given we could concentrate all our resources and efforts on the one centralized pool and drastically reduce our support overhead. The Live Communications Server 2005 applications server on this slide hosts custom server-side code that allows applications to intercept and reroute IM messages intended for application agents (rather than the Communicator client). Microsoft IT developers use the Standard Edition applications server to test and support new applications. 3/25/2017 © 2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.

7 Remote User and Federated Access
3/25/2017 Enhanced Federation Public IM Connection Remote Access (no VPN) Communicator Web Access Remote User Access and Federation between Organizations To support the communication of presence information and instant messages between Microsoft employees working inside the Microsoft firewall with employees and other contacts working outside the firewall, Microsoft deployed the Live Communications Server 2005 remote user and federated access architecture depicted on this slide. This environment supports three types of external communications: External Internet access by Microsoft employees working at customer and other business locations and home offices using a conventional personal computer. Microsoft has client filtering applied for this service to ensure only the latest supported Communicator client is used by clients accessing the system remotely. Federation enabling the deployments of Live Communications Server 2005 in selected Microsoft customer and other external organizations to exchange presence information and instant messages directly with the Microsoft IT Live Communications Server 2005 access proxy server. Microsoft IT configures direct federation with specific organizations based on business needs. Public IM Connectivity provides the capability to exchange text IM and presence with contacts in the MSN, AOL and Yahoo services without having an account in these services. Remote User Access Remote access by Microsoft employees is enabled using direct TLS access to the Microsoft IT Live Communications Server 2005 access proxy server shown on this slide. Direct & Enhanced Federation With federation, the Live Communications Server 2005 access proxy servers from two different organizations are configured to use a trusted MTLS connection to connect their internal deployments of Live Communications Server 2005. Public IM Connectivity Microsoft has deployed full connectivity for all provisioned accounts for the PIC services. The software client and service is configured to require an internal Microsoft end user to confirm before an PIC user can add and view their presence. This is handled via the standard invite process and though an external party may add a Microsoft SIP URI to their contacts, their status will remain unknown until the Microsoft contact added clicks allow to the invite request. They can also choose to decline and no external notice is received, the external party simply sees that their status remains unavailable. 3/25/2017 © 2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.

8 After (Office Communication Server 2K7)...
The highly centralized architecture we used with LCS 2K5 served us well when our focus was primarily IM and presence however things changed with OCS 2K7...

9 After: Now, with the broadened focus on new technologies with OCS 2K7 we’ve found that moving to a regional deployment makes a lot more sense and provides for a much better user experience, mostly because of voice and video. We wanted to ensure the best user experience possible so we wanted to get the infrastructure closer to the users. Interestingly this also gave us a better disaster recovery story. In this diagram you’ll notice our 3 main data centers for Microsoft which are the 2 larger circles on the either side of the upper quadrant (Dublin and Singapore) as well as the middle circle which is our largest data center in Redmond where the corporate head quarters are. In each of these larger data centers you’ll find a PABX, the OCS 2K7 server pool along with our VOIP gateways which interface with the Mediation servers. Finally you’ll notice we also have our Exchange UM servers deployed in these regional data centers. The two smaller circles in the bottom right and left corners of this diagram represent what we would call tail sites or branch offices. These are sites that are not major data centers yet still have UC Telephony deployed to them. Sydney fits this description. In these smaller branch offices all that is needed to provide UC Telephony is a VOIP gateway. For other sites in Australia where UC Telephony hasn’t been specifically deployed we are still able to provide key users with UC Telephony by simply assigning them with a number from the Sydney dial plan and then having the users forward their current local number to this new Sydney extension to avoid having local callers have to dial long distance to a Sydney number. We’ve deployed to numerous users in this configuration and it works just great! Branch office call flow: From the smaller branch offices the call flow goes like this – The user initiates the call from their communicator client or VOIP enabled phone (Tanjay), the call is passed to the VOIP gateway located locally at the branch office which translates the call into a TDM voice call (traditional voice) and then hands it off to the PABX via a PRI line (Primary Rate Interface). The call is sent out over the PSTN network to Singapore where the combination of the VOIP gateway and Mediation server transform the call back into a VOIP call, hands it off to the OCS server and it’s sent out over the network as an IP call. In the future the goal is retire the legacy PABX’s which will help us realize some substantial cost savings.

10 Regional Pool Topology
This diagram depicts more specifically exactly how we’ve deployed OCS and UC Telephony in our Singapore regional data center. On the left you’ll see the Shout/VX IP gateways that are connected to all of the PBX’s at the various sites via a PRI (primary rate interface) line. All of that infrastructure is located on premise at the branch offices. Just to the right of the gateways are the Mediation servers. Note that there’s a 1:1 mapping of gateways to mediation servers. On the right hand side you’ll see we have a network load balancer that front ends the OCS pool (we currently have 4 OCS servers in Singapore). We also have a clustered SQL server that is used to house the contacts information for our users. The OCS archiving server is primarily used to house metric data. We do not archive conversations however you can do that if you wish.

11 MS IT OCS Topology LCS Corp deployment was a single EE Pool for all global users. Chose Regional model for OCS (Redmond, Dublin, Singapore) Improved performance for regional users Especially for Audio and Video Web Components and Conferencing Remote Access Provisioning Still Automated Also lays foundation for global business continuance and disaster recovery strategy So, to summarize with LCS 2005 we deployed with a single Enterprise Edition Pool for all global users. Not other LCS infrastructure was deployed anywhere else in the world. We chose to move to a regional model with OCS as we knew we were moving to a broader set of functionality such as voice and video as well as web conferencing and Remote Access. Despite moving to a regional model for our deployment provisioning of the accounts is still automated and centralized with our Identity Access Management team that owns the AD in Redmond. One very important thing to add here is that moving to a regional model also lays the foundation for a much better BC/DR strategy.

12 Business and IT Benefits
3/25/2017 Business and IT Benefits Information worker within Microsoft saves approx 68min (3%) per week thru use of OCS/Communicator High availability and low operating cost with Enterprise Edition pool-based regionally managed system >99.9 3 dedicated FTE to support Low user/ticket ratio Single Identity management system using AD Secure IM Single client for all IM contacts via PIC and Federation Intelligent IM Filter provides simple protection Against malware, links, attachments Insure Intellectual Property stays internal Benefits November 2006 © 2002 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.

13 MS IT Deployment Overview
Regional Deployments Exchange UM for voic EE, CE and SE Topologies Parallel OCS and LCS deployment Not Just the Corp deployment Converting our MMS LCS Customers to OCS New MMS customers will be hosted on OCS As for the actual deployment to our users IT made the following decisions: We chose to go with Regional deployments v. centralized as I’ve already covered. We made the decision to deploy all regional UC users on a dedicated Unified Messaging deployment for our voic solution. This meant users needed to use a different access number. We currently have 3 different topologies deployed: Enterprise Edition in Redmond and Consolidated Edition in both Dublin and Singapore as well as the legacy Standard Edition in Redmond that we use for testing purposes to ensure things like security patches etc. function properly. We chose to roll this out to users with a phased approach which meant we had both LCS and OCS running in parallel for a period of time. This decision was made mostly to make sure we didn’t overwhelm our Helpdesk teams. In all cases, as users were migrated to UC Telephony they were also migrated to OCS 2K7 unless they had already been migrated to that platform. One other consideration our teams had to take into account is the fact that we also have an offering called MMS (Microsoft Managed Solutions) in which we host , Sharepoint and IM services for external customers so we also had make sure we had plans in place for those users.

14 UC Planning Considerations
Regional site PBX requirements Local dial plan interrogation Gateway requirements User Communication Exchange UM Integration UC Routing (Location Profiles) Network traffic planning Mediation Server placement We’ve standardized on the Nortel PBX platform outside of Redmond. Because of the standardization we knew exactly what we needed to implement UC Telephony out in the regions which was very helpful. Very important to understand how users dial today so you can duplicate that behavior as closely as possible with your new UC dial plans. You need to pay special attention to any unique dialing processes at regional sites for things such as jumping on alternate carriers etc. You really need to have a good understanding of this. Gateway Requirements: Microsoft has standardized on 2 different gateway products across all of our deployments: 1: In Redmond and other sites in the world we deployed Audio Codes Median 2000’s 2: An in many of the regional deployments we chose to deploy a product from Net.Com called a Shout gateway. We used 2 different models: VX 900 or 1200. With each of these we can accommodate as much as 8-10 users per trunk. User Comm’s: A solid communication plan is important for any rollout. But given the change in how users will now dial their customers, partners, friends and family (Especially in the true soft phone scenario with the Communicator client) it was important to give them as much guidance as possible on the most effective ways to dial their contacts. There were also some user scenarios that we don’t currently support at Microsoft that we needed to weed out. Examples would be ACD users and multiple line appearance users such as the boss/admin configuration we see a lot within Microsoft. We’ve been able to handle this scenario with the simul-ring functionality in UC however. UM integration: We chose a separate deployment for UC users which required a new TUI access number. UC Routing: We had to some special planning to accommodate the short dialing scenario (by ext.) Network traffic: It’s very important to try to understand how many concurrent calls to expect at each site. We handled this by reviewing historical PBX data where possible but sometimes it was a guess frankly. Mediation Server placement: Lastly we had to think about where to place the mediation servers that are needed for converting traditional voice calls to IP. I’ll talk more in depth on the mediation server placement in a few minutes.

15 Site Selection Considerations
Deploy to countries where regulatory and homologation hurdles are cleared for gateway and VoIP deployments. Site has adequate bandwidth for added UC users (Peer to Peer), and Client to Mediation Server. Device availability (Catalina or Tanjay) PBX has spare QSIG T1/E1 ports for gateway connectivity Users Basic phone users with PSTN phone number Reg/Homologation: It can be very difficult in countries like India for example to deploy things like UM and UC VOIP telephony solutions because of regulatory concerns with their governments. Things like Toll Bypass. Also had issues where we couldn’t purchase or install Gateways thru our vendors. Homologation: Need to make sure devices are approved for deployment in a specific country. We have to make sure things like frequencies used by devices don’t walk all over each other. Power is another concern here. There are others. B/W: Once again you have to try to predict traffic patterns and concurrent users. We used part historical data and sometimes it was a SWAG. We made sure that most of the sites were currently deployed to have sufficient bandwidth. Were the proper devices available?? We began with the Catalina devices as the default for each office, then we added the Tanjay’s. There are also wireless and bluetooth devices available. We allowed the users to self select and fund these other devices as they wished. Users: With users we had challenges with things like making sure all users had their phone numbers entered in the Global Address list which is fed by the AD in a standard and proper format. If this doesn’t happen some of the functionality is impacted such as the ability to dial users from the Communicator client by calling them up as a contact.

16 UC Telephony Scenarios
Tanjay Catalina/Softphone Best for deskbound workers HIGH phone usage Best for deskbound remote or mobile workers LOW phone usage Headset compatible Device controls calls Communicator controls calls Telephone independent of PC Must be logged in to use your telephone or forwarded to another number, or using a simultaneous ring Here is a comparison of our two main UC devices we deployed. The Catalina device is the device that will work for anyone, whether you’re a mobile worker, a remote worker or you’re primarily at your desk. We see the Tanjay device being more targeted to high phone users, so when that is available, we’ll be recommending it for that kind of user. On the Catalina/Softphone device, remember that Communicator is controlling your calls. This means you must be logged in on your PC, or forwarded to another number in order to receive your calls. You can also select to have your work calls ring on another number using the “simultaneously ring” feature. Wirless headsets: These are growing in popularity. IT is not choosing to deploy these and provide free to the users. Can purchase and use if they so choose. Personally I believe most remote users or users who travel a lot will opt for a “package” if you will of the Tanjay or Catalina for their desk phone and a wireless headset for when they are traveling. This is how I’ve chosen to have mine set up. 3/25/2017

17 Gateway + Mediation Servers
SIP Gateway Translate SIP/RTP to/from circuit switched telephony protocols Mediation Server Interfaces with a SIP gateway Intermediates SIP signaling interactions TLS/SRTP  SIP/RTP Transcoding of codec RT Audio  G.711 Media flows between OCS 2007 network and the SIP gateway Deploy Gateway and Mediation Server at a 1:1 ratio Install Reskit / Admin tools Useful to have Netmon installed on server for troubleshooting Gateway: Translates SIP/RTP to and from traditional curcuit switched telephony protocols. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), which is similar to the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), is a text-based application-layer signaling and call control protocol. SIP is used to create, modify, and terminate SIP sessions. RTP is a real-time transport protocol. SIP makes use of RTP for transferring digitized audio and video data between the various parties participating in a call. TLS – Transport Layer Security. An industry standard designed to protect the privacy of information communicated over the Internet. The mediation servers are located in the 3 regional DC’s and sit between the VOIP gateway and the OCS server Pool. It’s purpose is to convert calls from TLS to SIP and transcode RT Audio into G.711 for the highest voice quality. We strongly recommend that you deploy VOIP Gateway’s and Mediation servers in a 1:1 ratio. This helps to ensure all mappings are correct and makes troubleshooting much easier. The bottom line is to keep the environment as simple as possible. Netmon: Make sure to install Netmon 3 on the mediation servers. This is especially important for our implementation as we have IPSec installed and Netmon 3 allows you to peak inside the IPSec.

18 Mediation Server Deployment Datacenter vs Branch Office
Data Center a good choice when… High bandwidth w/ QoS between DC and Branch Office Low Latency between DC and Branch office No server hardware support at Branch office Branch Office good choice when… 120 Kbps per call network bandwidth not available High number of users on system We’ve had a great deal of debate among the groups deploying UC Telephony about where to locate the Mediation servers to provide the best voice quality experience in our branch offices. We chose to deploy them in our 3 main data centers however we’ve learned a great deal over the past few months. While the data center is a good choice when Branch Offices have big pipes to the data center with QOS deployed the latency can still become problematic. Obviously whether the branch office has onsite server hardware support is an important consideration. In general, if we were to do things over again I feel we would very likely decide to deploy the Mediation servers at the branch offices to provide the best user experience. Incidentally there are now VOIP gateway products that are coming to market that handle mediation server tasks so the separate mediation server may become a thing of the past.

19 RouteHelper.exe (ResKit)
Helpful UC Tools OCSUMUtil.exe Creates UC/UM Integration Reads ExUM Info Dial plan name Phone Number Creates an AD Contact UC enables contact Sets phone number Sets ExUM integration attributes in contact RouteHelper.exe (ResKit) UC Routing Tool Provides Telecom Manager friendly interface for configuring UC routing Bridges many of the UC routing objects into one easy interface. Reduces routing complexity by abstracting telecom manger from RegEx code. Provides test interface for all sites in the forest. Manage gateways Here are a couple of very useful tools. The OCSUMUtil.exe ships with the base product while the RouteHelper.exe is included in the OCS Resource kit. The test interface is particularly helpful.

20 Per user calculation Total Media Type Bandwidth Needed Audio 45 Kbps
Video 250 Kbps Data ~45 Kbps Signaling 10 Kbps Total 350 Kbps per direction Type of usage is important when planning Consider the whole path end to end I get asked a lot, “Jonathan just how much additional bandwidth do we need to plan for here?” I can’t answer that question for each and every case for each and every customer however I can provide you with the average figures we came up with internally here at Microsoft. <Read info from chart>

21 Other Network Considerations
Delay Engineer to less than a mean of 150 ms Loss up to 10% can be handled without significant problems Connectivity The clients can connect through pretty well all common networks

22 Troubleshooting Serverside
Post Install Server Validation Wizard OCS MOM Packs for Operations Manager 2005 and 2007 OCS Logging Tool Replacement for Flatfile logging Best Practice Analyzer Perfmon for trending and quick health checks Make sure you run the Post Install Server Validation Wizard which will help you double check all of our configurations. Microsoft users MOM or what is now called Operations Manager under the Systems Management Center umbrella to monitor the health of our environment and get advanced notification of troubling trends. The OCS logging tool has simplified the trouble shooting process immensely. In LCS 2K5 we had flatfile logging which was very effective for troubleshooting however it produced a tremendous amount of data to sift through. The new logging tool has simplified this process. Best Practive Analyzer: This is a script based approach designed by our internal COE teams that checks your environment from every angle and provides best practices for how you can ensure your entire platform is set up optimally. Perfmon is essential for trending and quick health checks.

23 Troubleshooting Clientside
Install Client with Logging enabled where possible, especially during pilot Very useful to understanding client issues Some Privacy and Compliance concerns We’ve used client side logging extensively during our pilot and early roll out phases to effectively identify and resolve a number of issues.

24 Voice Troubleshooting
3/25/ :50 AM Voice Troubleshooting Steps to Isolate Voice Quality Issue: Get a clear definition of the issue. Is it reproducible consistently. Did anything change recently – new devices, new environment “Anything at all” Which end is the problem Network parameters to consider – Jitter, Packet loss, Delay, Bandwidth Touch points for Media Device (Hard phone/Soft phone) Computer/Laptop Mediation Server Media Gateway PSTN network/Mobile Operator Install Ethereal or Netmon on Mediation servers These are the key steps we use to diagnose voice quality issues. Because of all the disperate systems, media touch points and dependencies trouble shooting voice issues can be the most difficult. Is the issue on our end or the other parties end? This requires a templatized approach to gather all the pertinent information from the users. Some terms to become familiar with are as follows: Jitter The variance in delay between packets. Voice transmission, unlike data transmission, is susceptible to the affects of jitter. Excessive delay between the sending of packets and their reception on the receiving end can cause for uneven, difficult-to-hear voice communication. Packet Loss Voice communication over a packet-based network is less tolerant of dropped packets than the same type of communication over a circuit-switched network. Excessive dropped packets loss can significantly degrade voice quality. Packet Sequence Because of the nature of voice communication, received packets need to be processed in the same order in which they were sent from the original source. Discuss the various media touch points and how they can affect voice quality. © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary. 24

25 Lessons Learned Important to drive synergies between all teams (Networking, Telephony, Messaging and UC) early. Lack of telephone number standardization caused delays in enabling users. Wireless can be problematic. Live Meeting without wired power can cause issues. Using voice from other enterprise locations causes RTP to go over TCP, firewalls typically only allow 443 or 80 which causes audio to go over 443 via TCP. Legacy network hubs / switches can cause poor audio. Slower laptop CPU’s can be problematic with UC audio and RoundTable, especially when Recording.

26 Gateway Lessons Learned
Choose good partners Provide site deployment plans early and often to Gateway Vendor so that delays in homologation don’t hinder deployments. Bring up T1/E1 2 weeks prior to deployment Standardize on tie line interfaces between the PBX and UC (i.e. QSIG)

27 Deployment Challenges
Dial Plans are located in UC, PBX, Gateways and Exchange UM Not all Telco carriers are created equal Each country is different for T1/E1 configuration Variable length phone numbers Outbound Caller ID variants Inconsistent, inbound Caller ID can impersonate internal users if it matches the length and range of an internal extension. Users that require advanced PBX features are impacted. Dial plans – Located in multiple areas and need to match for this to work successfully. This can be a challenge to manage.

28 Best Practices Infrastructure End User Standardize gateway hardware
Deploy in phases Ensure a crisp and well thought out enablement process End User Create strong communications package Standardize user devices Introduce users to the softphone concept End user training/preparation Helpdesk preparation Lastly I wanted to leave you with some final thoughts around Best Practices: Standardize on gateway hardware – Microsoft used 3 different gateway products which were Intel’s TIMG and PIMG models, Audiocodes Mediant 1K and 2K models and also a product from called a SHOUT gateway using models VX1200 and VX950. By utilizing a standard set of gateways you can drastically simplify maintenance, admin and support. Deploy in phases – We began our deployment with only hardcore dogfood users from the product group and IT. Once we got a lot of learnings under our belt we broadened the deployment to more users in Redmond and once again captured a lot of lessons learned. We then broadened this out to 14 regional sites of which Sydney is one. In these sites we began with a small user base of local IT personell. This allowed us to run through a stringent test plan to make sure all key dialing scenarios passed our test. Once we were confident it all worked as planned we began to roll it out to selected groups who were savvy on the technology and were good dogfooders. We knew we’d get great feedback from these users. By phasing our roll out in this manner we could be confident the user experience would be good plus we also wouldn’t inundate our HD. Enablement process: This requires a lot of coordination between multiple groups. <Describe our process> End user: Communication is key when you are rolling out something that will change the way end users work. We standardized on 2 primary devices (Tanjay and Catalina) to keep support simplified and end user training to a manageable size. We spent a great deal of time introducing users to the softphone concept which meant teaching them tips and tricks for dialing from OC client. Once users caught on they loved it and would not go back to traditional dialing. Through our EPE program we did a massive wave of end user training and prep. Helpdesk prep is always key. September 07


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