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**partial-differences method**

932 -356 1. Subtract 100’s: 600 2. Subtract 10’s: 30-50 -20 3. Subtract 1’s: 2-4 -4 4. Add the partial differences 576 ( , done mentally) A way to subtract in which differences are computed separately for each place (ones, tens, hundreds, and so on). The partial differences are then added to give the final answer.

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**partial-sums algorithm**

2 6 8 1. Add 100’s 6 0 0 2. Add 10’s 1 4 0 + 1 1 3. Add 1’s 7 5 1 Add partial sum An addition procedure in with sums are computed for each lace separately and then added to find the sum.

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pattern ? 100, 90, 80, ? ? 2, 4, 6, ? 5,10,15,20,? A model or plan in which objects or numbers can be arranged so that what comes next can be predicted.

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**Pattern-Block Template**

A plastic sheet with geometric shapes cut out.

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pentagon A 5-sided polygon.

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per Five chairs per row In each or for each.

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**per-unit rate Two dollars per gallon 12 miles per hour**

4 words per minute A rate that tells the quantity of items with a given unit for each item of a different unit.

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**Per hundred, or out of a hundred.**

percent (%) 100%= 1 100 or 0.01 1 one-hundredth 15 100 15%= or 0.15 Per hundred, or out of a hundred.

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**perfect number 6 is a perfect number because when you add**

its proper factors the answer is equal to 6: = 6. A number in which the sum of all its proper factors is equal to the number itself.

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**The distance around a two-dimensional closed plane figure or region.**

perimeter 2cm 3cm 3cm 1cm =4 =9cm The distance around a two-dimensional closed plane figure or region.

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**perpendicular line segments**

Two rays, lines segments that form right angles are said to be perpendicular to each other.

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**The ration of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.**

pi = C / D The ration of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

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**A graph made with pictures or symbols.**

pictograph A graph made with pictures or symbols.

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pie graph A graph that uses a circle divided into parts to show the parts of a set of data. The circle represents the whole set of data.

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**Standard measurement used to measure capacity equal to 2 cups.**

pint = Standard measurement used to measure capacity equal to 2 cups.

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place value 745,309,281 The worth of each digit in a number, with is determined by its position.

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**A flat surface that extends forever.**

plane A flat surface that extends forever.

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**An exact location in space.**

point Points are usually labeled with capital letters. R W K L An exact location in space.

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point symmetry The property of a figure that can be rotated 180 about a point in such a way that the resulting figure exactly matches the original figured. o

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polygon A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that meet only at their end points.

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**A closed 3-dimensional shape, all of whose surfaces (faces) are flat.**

polyhedron A closed 3-dimensional shape, all of whose surfaces (faces) are flat.

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**A three-dimensional solid with varying numbers of faces.**

polyhedra dice A three-dimensional solid with varying numbers of faces.

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**A page showing a collection of numerical data used in number stories.**

poster A page showing a collection of numerical data used in number stories.

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**positive rational numbers**

Numbers great than 0 that can be written as a fraction or a termination or repeating decimal.

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**Standard unit of weight.**

pound (lb) one pound Standard unit of weight.

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**A product of factors that are all the same.**

power 5 x 5 x 5 (or 125) is called 5 to the third power, or the third power of 5, because 5 is a factor three times. 5 x 5 x 5 can also be written as 5. 3 A product of factors that are all the same.

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**(exponential notation).**

powers of ten 100 is equal to 10 x 10 or 10 (exponential notation). 100 is called ten squared, the second power of 10, or 10 to the second power. 2 Written exponential notation, the exponent shows how many times 10 is a factor.

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probability The teacher puts 7 blue squares and 2 red squares in the box. If you pull a square out of the box. What will probably be the color? Can you pull out a purple square? A number from 0 to 1 that shows the likelihood that an event will happen.

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probability A number from 0 to 1 that indicated the likelihood that something (an event) will happen.

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**The result of doing multiplication.**

product 5 multiplicand X 3 1 5 multiplier product The result of doing multiplication.

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**A number expressed as a product of prime factors.**

prime factorization The prime factorization of 24 is 2 * 2 * 2 * 3 or 2 * 3 3 A number expressed as a product of prime factors.

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prime number A whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole-number factors, 1 and itself. A prime number is only divisible by 1 and itself.

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prism A polyhedron with two parallel flat faces (bases) with the same size and shape.

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**The result of doing multiplication.**

product 2 X 4 = 8 The result of doing multiplication.

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**All the factors of a number except the number itself.**

proper factor The factors for the number 10 are 1, 2, 5 and 10. The proper factors are 1, 2, and 5. All the factors of a number except the number itself.

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**property size shape color attributes number of parts**

A feature of an object.

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**A device for measuring or drawing angles.**

protractor A device for measuring or drawing angles.

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pyramid A polyhedron (3-dimensional shape) in which one face (base) is a polygon and the other faces are triangles with a common vertex (apex).

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Pythagorean Theorem The following famous theorem: If the legs of a right triangle have the lengths a and b, and the hypotenuse has length c, then a + b =c 2 2 2

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quadrangle A 4-sided polygon.

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quadrilateral A 4-sided polygon.

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quadruple Four times an amount.

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**A digit(s) followed by 15 whole-number places.**

quadrillion Quadrillion written in number form is 1,000,000,000,000,000 or in exponential form 10 15 A digit(s) followed by 15 whole-number places.

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**A digit(s) followed by 18 whole number places.**

quintillion Quintillion written in number form is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 or in exponential form 10 18 A digit(s) followed by 18 whole number places.

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quotient The result after dividing one number by another number; the number of equal shares.

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radius A line segment from the center of a circle (or shape) to any point on the circle (or shape); also, the length of such a line segment.

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random sampling Taking a sampling from the population in a manner that allows all members the same chance of being included.

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range 10 3 14 450 -75 375 range The difference between the greatest and least numbers in a set of data.

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**A comparison of two quantities with unlike units.**

rate A speed such as 55 miles per hour compares distance with time. A comparison of two quantities with unlike units.

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ratio A comparison of two quantities with like units. Ratios can be expressed with fractions, decimals, percent, or words; or written with a colon between the two numbers being compared.

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ray A straight path that extends infinitely from a point called its endpoint.

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**Any rational or irrational number.**

real number Any rational or irrational number.

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**Multiplicative inverses.**

reciprocal Multiplicative inverses.

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rational number Any number that can be represented in form , where a and b are integers and b is not 0. a b

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**A parallelogram whose angles are all right angles.**

rectangle A parallelogram whose angles are all right angles.

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rectangular method A method for finding area, in which rectangles are used to surround a figure or parts of a figure. All the area is calculated in either area of rectangles or of triangular halves of rectangular regions.

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**A prism whose bases are rectangles.**

rectangular prism A prism whose bases are rectangles.

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**A pyramid whose base is a rectangle.**

rectangular pyramid A pyramid whose base is a rectangle.

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**reference frame number lines time lines calendars thermometers maps**

coordinate systems A system of numbers, letter, or words to show quantities with reference to a zero point.

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reflection "Flipping" a picture or object so that its image is the mirror opposite of the original (preimage).

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**angle whose measure is between 180° and 360°.**

reflex angle angle whose measure is between 180° and 360°.

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**A symbol used to express the association between two quantities.**

reflection symbol = for equal to = for is not equal to < for less than > for greater than < for is less than or equal to > for greater than or equal to A symbol used to express the association between two quantities.

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regular polygon A convex polygon in which all the sides are the same length and all the angles have the same measure.

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**A polygon whose sides are all the same.**

regular polygon A polygon whose sides are all the same.

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regular polyhedron A polyhedron with all faces the same shape and same size. There are five regular polyhedrons.

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regular polyhedron A polyhedron whose faces are all congruent regular polygons and with the same number of faces meeting at every vertex.

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**A symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities.**

relation symbol > < = A symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities.

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**The amount left over when things are divided into equal shares.**

remainder remainder The amount left over when things are divided into equal shares.

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**Decimals that continue a pattern without end.**

repeating decimal .333… 1 3 = .30 Decimals that continue a pattern without end.

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**A parallelogram with sides that are all the same length.**

rhombus A parallelogram with sides that are all the same length.

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**A square corner; a 90 angle.**

right angle 90 o A square corner; a 90 angle. o

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**A triangle that has a right angle.**

right triangle A triangle that has a right angle.

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**A turn around a center point or axis.**

rotation A turn around a center point or axis.

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**Reciting numbers in order from memory.**

rote counting Reciting numbers in order from memory.

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rotation symmetry Property of a figure that can be rotated around a point in such a way that the resulting figure exactly matches the original figure. The rotation must be more than 0 degrees, but less than 360 degrees.

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**To express a number in a simplified way.**

round about 20 units about 10C about 2 lb To express a number in a simplified way.

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rounding about 20 units about 10C about 2 lb Replacing a number with a nearby number that is easier to work with or better reflects the precision of the date.

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round Circle shape.

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**A horizontal arrangement of objects or numbers in an array or table.**

row A horizontal arrangement of objects or numbers in an array or table.

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**A table for displaying the input output and the role for a function.**

rule table in out ? 9 ? A table for displaying the input output and the role for a function.

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**A subset of a population used to represent the whole population.**

sample A subset of a population used to represent the whole population.

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scale The ratio of the distance on a map, globe, or drawing to the actual distance.

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scale drawing An accurate picture of an object in which all parts are drawn to the same scale.

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scale factor A number that names "how many times as many?" or "what fraction of?" one quantity is of another quantity.

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**A triangle in which no sides are the same length.**

scalene triangle A triangle in which no sides are the same length.

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**4,000,000 in scientific notation 0.00001 in scientific notation**

is 4 x 10 in scientific notation is 1 x 10 6 -6 A system for representing numbers in which a number is written as the product of a power of 10 and a number that is at least 1 but less than 10. Scientific notation allows writing big and small numbers with only a few symbols.

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**A roll of paper with words and/or pictures written on it.**

scroll A roll of paper with words and/or pictures written on it.

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**A collection or group of objects, numbers or other items.**

set ( 23, 44, 56, 88 ) A collection or group of objects, numbers or other items.

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**A region bound by an arc and two radii of a circle.**

sector A region bound by an arc and two radii of a circle.

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semicircle Half of a circle; either of two parts of a circle between (and including) the endpoints of a diameter.

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Sieve of Eratosthenes A method credited to the mathematician Eratosthenes (about 200 B.C.) for identifying prime numbers.

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significant figure In a count or measurement, digits that reflect the precision of the result.

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similar figures Figures that have the same shape but are not necessarily the same size.

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simplest form A fraction in which the numerator and the dominator have no common factor except 1 and the numerator is less than the denominator.

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**simplify an expression**

7y y 10y + 9 3(2y + 5) – y 5y + 15 To rewrite the expression by removing parentheses and combining like terms.

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**Counting by a specified added amount from a specified starting number.**

skip counting Counting by a specified added amount from a specified starting number.

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**Any line segment that makes up a polygon.**

side Any line segment that makes up a polygon.

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**Lap board used to write on.**

slate 2 +2 4 Lap board used to write on.

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speed A rate that compares distance traveled with the time taken to travel that distance.

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sphere A 3-dimensional shape whose curved surface is a given distance from its center point.

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sphere The set of all points in space that are a given distance (the radius of the sphere) from a given point (center of the sphere).

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