# partial-differences method

## Presentation on theme: "partial-differences method"— Presentation transcript:

partial-differences method
932 -356 1. Subtract 100’s: 600 2. Subtract 10’s: 30-50 -20 3. Subtract 1’s: 2-4 -4 4. Add the partial differences 576 ( , done mentally) A way to subtract in which differences are computed separately for each place (ones, tens, hundreds, and so on). The partial differences are then added to give the final answer.

partial-sums algorithm
2 6 8 1. Add 100’s 6 0 0 2. Add 10’s 1 4 0 + 1 1 3. Add 1’s 7 5 1 Add partial sum An addition procedure in with sums are computed for each lace separately and then added to find the sum.

pattern ? 100, 90, 80, ? ? 2, 4, 6, ? 5,10,15,20,? A model or plan in which objects or numbers can be arranged so that what comes next can be predicted.

Pattern-Block Template
A plastic sheet with geometric shapes cut out.

pentagon A 5-sided polygon.

per Five chairs per row In each or for each.

per-unit rate Two dollars per gallon 12 miles per hour
4 words per minute A rate that tells the quantity of items with a given unit for each item of a different unit.

Per hundred, or out of a hundred.
percent (%) 100%= 1 100 or 0.01 1 one-hundredth 15 100 15%= or 0.15 Per hundred, or out of a hundred.

perfect number 6 is a perfect number because when you add
its proper factors the answer is equal to 6: = 6. A number in which the sum of all its proper factors is equal to the number itself.

The distance around a two-dimensional closed plane figure or region.
perimeter 2cm 3cm 3cm 1cm =4 =9cm The distance around a two-dimensional closed plane figure or region.

perpendicular line segments
Two rays, lines segments that form right angles are said to be perpendicular to each other.

The ration of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.
pi = C / D The ration of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

A graph made with pictures or symbols.
pictograph A graph made with pictures or symbols.

pie graph A graph that uses a circle divided into parts to show the parts of a set of data. The circle represents the whole set of data.

Standard measurement used to measure capacity equal to 2 cups.
pint = Standard measurement used to measure capacity equal to 2 cups.

place value 745,309,281 The worth of each digit in a number, with is determined by its position.

A flat surface that extends forever.
plane A flat surface that extends forever.

An exact location in space.
point Points are usually labeled with capital letters. R W K L An exact location in space.

point symmetry The property of a figure that can be rotated 180 about a point in such a way that the resulting figure exactly matches the original figured. o

polygon A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that meet only at their end points.

A closed 3-dimensional shape, all of whose surfaces (faces) are flat.
polyhedron A closed 3-dimensional shape, all of whose surfaces (faces) are flat.

A three-dimensional solid with varying numbers of faces.
polyhedra dice A three-dimensional solid with varying numbers of faces.

A page showing a collection of numerical data used in number stories.
poster A page showing a collection of numerical data used in number stories.

positive rational numbers
Numbers great than 0 that can be written as a fraction or a termination or repeating decimal.

Standard unit of weight.
pound (lb) one pound Standard unit of weight.

A product of factors that are all the same.
power 5 x 5 x 5 (or 125) is called 5 to the third power, or the third power of 5, because 5 is a factor three times. 5 x 5 x 5 can also be written as 5. 3 A product of factors that are all the same.

(exponential notation).
powers of ten 100 is equal to 10 x 10 or 10 (exponential notation). 100 is called ten squared, the second power of 10, or 10 to the second power. 2 Written exponential notation, the exponent shows how many times 10 is a factor.

probability The teacher puts 7 blue squares and 2 red squares in the box. If you pull a square out of the box. What will probably be the color? Can you pull out a purple square? A number from 0 to 1 that shows the likelihood that an event will happen.

probability A number from 0 to 1 that indicated the likelihood that something (an event) will happen.

The result of doing multiplication.
product 5 multiplicand X 3 1 5 multiplier product The result of doing multiplication.

A number expressed as a product of prime factors.
prime factorization The prime factorization of 24 is 2 * 2 * 2 * 3 or 2 * 3 3 A number expressed as a product of prime factors.

prime number A whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole-number factors, 1 and itself. A prime number is only divisible by 1 and itself.

prism A polyhedron with two parallel flat faces (bases) with the same size and shape.

The result of doing multiplication.
product 2 X 4 = 8 The result of doing multiplication.

All the factors of a number except the number itself.
proper factor The factors for the number 10 are 1, 2, 5 and 10. The proper factors are 1, 2, and 5. All the factors of a number except the number itself.

property size shape color attributes number of parts
A feature of an object.

A device for measuring or drawing angles.
protractor A device for measuring or drawing angles.

pyramid A polyhedron (3-dimensional shape) in which one face (base) is a polygon and the other faces are triangles with a common vertex (apex).

Pythagorean Theorem The following famous theorem: If the legs of a right triangle have the lengths a and b, and the hypotenuse has length c, then a + b =c 2 2 2

quadrangle A 4-sided polygon.

quadrilateral A 4-sided polygon.

quadruple Four times an amount.

A digit(s) followed by 15 whole-number places.
quadrillion Quadrillion written in number form is 1,000,000,000,000,000 or in exponential form 10 15 A digit(s) followed by 15 whole-number places.

A digit(s) followed by 18 whole number places.
quintillion Quintillion written in number form is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 or in exponential form 10 18 A digit(s) followed by 18 whole number places.

quotient The result after dividing one number by another number; the number of equal shares.

radius A line segment from the center of a circle (or shape) to any point on the circle (or shape); also, the length of such a line segment.

random sampling Taking a sampling from the population in a manner that allows all members the same chance of being included.

range 10 3 14 450 -75 375 range The difference between the greatest and least numbers in a set of data.

A comparison of two quantities with unlike units.
rate A speed such as 55 miles per hour compares distance with time. A comparison of two quantities with unlike units.

ratio A comparison of two quantities with like units. Ratios can be expressed with fractions, decimals, percent, or words; or written with a colon between the two numbers being compared.

ray A straight path that extends infinitely from a point called its endpoint.

Any rational or irrational number.
real number Any rational or irrational number.

Multiplicative inverses.
reciprocal Multiplicative inverses.

rational number Any number that can be represented in form , where a and b are integers and b is not 0. a b

A parallelogram whose angles are all right angles.
rectangle A parallelogram whose angles are all right angles.

rectangular method A method for finding area, in which rectangles are used to surround a figure or parts of a figure. All the area is calculated in either area of rectangles or of triangular halves of rectangular regions.

A prism whose bases are rectangles.
rectangular prism A prism whose bases are rectangles.

A pyramid whose base is a rectangle.
rectangular pyramid A pyramid whose base is a rectangle.

reference frame number lines time lines calendars thermometers maps
coordinate systems A system of numbers, letter, or words to show quantities with reference to a zero point.

reflection "Flipping" a picture or object so that its image is the mirror opposite of the original (preimage).

angle whose measure is between 180° and 360°.
reflex angle angle whose measure is between 180° and 360°.

A symbol used to express the association between two quantities.
reflection symbol = for equal to = for is not equal to < for less than > for greater than < for is less than or equal to > for greater than or equal to A symbol used to express the association between two quantities.

regular polygon A convex polygon in which all the sides are the same length and all the angles have the same measure.

A polygon whose sides are all the same.
regular polygon A polygon whose sides are all the same.

regular polyhedron A polyhedron with all faces the same shape and same size. There are five regular polyhedrons.

regular polyhedron A polyhedron whose faces are all congruent regular polygons and with the same number of faces meeting at every vertex.

A symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities.
relation symbol > < = A symbol used to express a relationship between two quantities.

The amount left over when things are divided into equal shares.
remainder remainder The amount left over when things are divided into equal shares.

Decimals that continue a pattern without end.
repeating decimal .333… 1 3 = .30 Decimals that continue a pattern without end.

A parallelogram with sides that are all the same length.
rhombus A parallelogram with sides that are all the same length.

A square corner; a 90 angle.
right angle 90 o A square corner; a 90 angle. o

A triangle that has a right angle.
right triangle A triangle that has a right angle.

A turn around a center point or axis.
rotation A turn around a center point or axis.

Reciting numbers in order from memory.
rote counting Reciting numbers in order from memory.

rotation symmetry Property of a figure that can be rotated around a point in such a way that the resulting figure exactly matches the original figure. The rotation must be more than 0 degrees, but less than 360 degrees.

To express a number in a simplified way.
round about 20 units about 10C about 2 lb To express a number in a simplified way.

rounding about 20 units about 10C about 2 lb Replacing a number with a nearby number that is easier to work with or better reflects the precision of the date.

round Circle shape.

A horizontal arrangement of objects or numbers in an array or table.
row A horizontal arrangement of objects or numbers in an array or table.

A table for displaying the input output and the role for a function.
rule table in out ? 9 ? A table for displaying the input output and the role for a function.

A subset of a population used to represent the whole population.
sample A subset of a population used to represent the whole population.

scale The ratio of the distance on a map, globe, or drawing to the actual distance.

scale drawing An accurate picture of an object in which all parts are drawn to the same scale.

scale factor A number that names "how many times as many?" or "what fraction of?" one quantity is of another quantity.

A triangle in which no sides are the same length.
scalene triangle A triangle in which no sides are the same length.

4,000,000 in scientific notation 0.00001 in scientific notation
is 4 x 10 in scientific notation is 1 x 10 6 -6 A system for representing numbers in which a number is written as the product of a power of 10 and a number that is at least 1 but less than 10. Scientific notation allows writing big and small numbers with only a few symbols.

A roll of paper with words and/or pictures written on it.
scroll A roll of paper with words and/or pictures written on it.

A collection or group of objects, numbers or other items.
set ( 23, 44, 56, 88 ) A collection or group of objects, numbers or other items.

A region bound by an arc and two radii of a circle.
sector A region bound by an arc and two radii of a circle.

semicircle Half of a circle; either of two parts of a circle between (and including) the endpoints of a diameter.

Sieve of Eratosthenes A method credited to the mathematician Eratosthenes (about 200 B.C.) for identifying prime numbers.

significant figure In a count or measurement, digits that reflect the precision of the result.

similar figures Figures that have the same shape but are not necessarily the same size.

simplest form A fraction in which the numerator and the dominator have no common factor except 1 and the numerator is less than the denominator.

simplify an expression
7y y 10y + 9 3(2y + 5) – y 5y + 15 To rewrite the expression by removing parentheses and combining like terms.

Counting by a specified added amount from a specified starting number.
skip counting Counting by a specified added amount from a specified starting number.

Any line segment that makes up a polygon.
side Any line segment that makes up a polygon.

Lap board used to write on.
slate 2 +2 4 Lap board used to write on.

speed A rate that compares distance traveled with the time taken to travel that distance.

sphere A 3-dimensional shape whose curved surface is a given distance from its center point.

sphere The set of all points in space that are a given distance (the radius of the sphere) from a given point (center of the sphere).