# Math HSPA.

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Math HSPA

Real Number terms Rational number: is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction a/b of two integers, with the denominator b not equal to zero. (ratio is in the word rational) Irrational number: a number that is not rational; a number that continues forever without repeating. Terminating decimal: a decimal that has a finite number of places; a decimal that ends. Repeating decimal: a decimal in which a pattern of one or more digits is repeated indefinitely, for example,

Real Number terms Non-terminating decimal: a decimal that does not end. Prime number: a number that has only two factors, one and itself. 2 is the only even prime number. Composite number: a number that is not prime; a number that has more than 2 factors.

Algebra terms or algebraic terms
Variable: a letter that is used to represent one or more numbers Term: either a single number or variable, or the product of several numbers or variables separated from another term by a + or - sign in an overall expression. Expression: one or more algebraic terms in a phrase. It can include variables, constants, and operating symbols, such as plus and minus signs. It's only a phrase, not the whole sentence, so it doesn't include an equal sign.

Algebra terms Equation: a statement that two expressions are equal.
Constants: terms in the algebraic expression that contain only numbers. Inequality: a statement in which two values or expressions are not equal using <, ≤ , >, ≥ .

Number formats Decimal: a number with a decimal point
Percent: a ratio of a number to 100 Fraction: a number that names parts of a whole or part of a set of objects Ratio: a comparison of two numbers

Percent related terms Proportion: an equation stating that two ratios are equal Discount: amount deducted or subtracted from a cost or price Sale Price: price of a good or service that is being offered at a discount Sales tax: a tax collected by all retailers and certain service providers when they make taxable retail sales. Sales tax is added to the price of an item.

Percent related terms Straight commission: a salesperson compensation or payment method in which only a percentage of the sales volume, but no fixed salary, is paid. Principal: the initial amount Simple interest: is calculated only on the principal amount, or on that portion of the principal amount that remains unpaid. I = P x r x t, P is principal, r is rate, t is time.

Percent related terms Percent Change: the change between two numbers expressed as a percent

Percent Change The price of a shirt increased from \$20 to \$28. Find the percent increase. The cost of a gallon of ice cream increased from \$4.29 to \$4.89. Find the percent increase. During a sale, the price of athletic shoes was reduced to \$35.60 from \$ What was the percent decrease in price?

Calculate total price You bought an Xbox originally priced at \$299 on sale at 15% off. What did you pay including 7% sales tax?

Geometric Terms Perimeter:
Area: the region enclosed by a two dimensional figure. Area is measured in square units Volume: the measure of the interior of a solid figure. Volume is measured in cubic units.

Complementary: two angles whose sum is 90º
Supplementary: two angles whose sum is 180º Sum: the result of addition Product: the result of multiplication

Probability terms Sample space: the set of all possible outcomes in a probability experiment

GCF: greatest common factor: the largest common factor shared by two or more numbers.
LCM: least common multiple: the smallest multiple shared by two or more numbers

Statistical Terms Mean: is the average of a data set. It is calculated by adding up the data values and dividing by the number of data values. Mode: The number or numbers that occur most frequently. Range: is the difference between the greatest and least data values.

Statistical Terms Measure of Central Tendency: A number used to represent the center or middle of a set of data values. Mean, median and mode are three measures of central tendency. Median: the middle number when the numbers are written in numerical order. If the number of data values is even, the median is the mean of the two middle numbers.

Scatter Plots terms Scatter plot: A graph that uses data points to show if a relationship exists between two sets of data. Outlier: A value that is much greater than or much smaller than most of the other values in a data set. Line of best fit: A straight line on a scatter plot that is near most of the points and indicates the general trend between two sets of data.

Scatter Plots terms (continued)
Positive correlation: when y tends to increase as x increases Negative correlation: when y tends to decrease as x increases No correlation: no relationship between y and x

Algebra II Terms Vertex of a function: is a point where the function reaches the maximum or minimum. Family of functions is made up of function with certain common characteristics. Parent function: is the simplest function with these characteristics. The equations and graphs of the functions in a family resemble each other. Offspring of parent functions include translations, stretches, and shrinks.

Algebra II Terms (continued)
Translation: shifts a graph horizontally, vertically, or both. It results in a graph of the same shape and size but possibly in a different position.

Algebra II Terms (continued)
Consistent Inconsistent Consistent dependent Consistent independent