2 The Collection of Crime Data FIGURE 2–1 The criminal justice funnel. Source: Derived from Tracey Kyckelhahn and Thomas H. Cohen, Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2008).
3 Uniform Crime Reports The reports began in 1930. Data are collected by F.B.I.Approximately 16,000 police agencies provide data.Only crimes known to the police are included.Law enforcement agencies submit reports voluntarily.Until 2006, the UCR presented data in a Crime Index (included only 7 major offenses).
4 UCR: Crime IndexThe Index was made up of a summation of all Part I Offenses.Part I OffensesViolent Crimemurder, rape, robbery, assaultProperty Crimeburglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arsonTraditional UCRConsist of aggregate crime countsRecords one offense per incident, as determined by the hierarchy rule, which suppresses counts of lesser offenses in multiple-offense incidentsDoes not distinguish between attempted and completed crimesRecords rape of females onlyCollects assaults information in five categoriesCollects weapon information for murder, robbery, and aggravated assaultProvides counts on arrests for the eight major crimes and 21 other offensesEnhanced UCR/NIBRSConsists of individual incident records for the eight major crimes and 38 other offenses, with details on offense, victim, offender, and property involvedRecords each offense occurring in an incidentDistinguishes between attempted and completed crimesRecords rape of males and femalesRestructures definition of assaultCollects weapon information for all violent offensesProvides details on arrests for the eight major crimes and 49 other offenses
5 NIBRS: The New UCR National Incident Based Reporting System Incident driven, rather than summary basedFBI started this program in 1988.City, county, state, and federal law enforcement agencies furnish detailed data on crime and arrest activities at the incident level.The NIBRS isn’t a separate report; it’s the new methodology underlying the modern-day UCR system
6 NIBRSThe new UCR/NIBRS is much more detailed than the old UCR system, including data on:place of occurrenceweapon usedtype and value of property damaged or stolenthe personal characteristics of the victim and offendernature of victim-offender relationshipcase dispositionIt also replaced the old Part I and Part II offenses with 22 general offenses
7 UCR/NIBRS 22 offenses include: kidnapping larceny motor vehicle theft pornographyprostitutionnarcotics offensesembezzlementextortionarsonassaultbriberyburglarycounterfeitingvandalismgamblinghomicidefraudweapons violationsrobberyforcible sex offensesnon-forcible sex offensesreceiving stolen property
8 UCR/NIBRS Also collects data on: bad checks vagrancy disorderly conductdriving under the influencedrunkennessnon-violent family offensesliquor law violations“peeping Tom”activitiesrunawaystrespassinggeneral category of all “other” criminal law violations
9 UCR/NIBRS: Crime Rates & Clearance Rates Most UCR/NCVS information is reported as a rate of crime.Crime Rate = number of crimes/100,000 populationRates allow for comparison across areas and times.Clearances are based on arrests, not judicial dispositions.number of crimes solvednumber of crimes committedClearance Rate =
10 Part I Offenses-most violent & serious Murder- the unlawful killing of a human being by another.Includes:All willful and unlawful homicidesNonnegligent manslaughterExcludes:SuicidesDeaths caused by accidents or negligenceAttempted murders
11 Data on Murder Least likely Part I offense to occur High clearance rateMurders are more common during warmer months and in southern statesMost victims and perpetrators are age 20–24Weapon most often used: firearmsVictim and offender are often “acquaintances”
12 Murder: Multiple Killings Spree—two or more people killed on more than one occasion.Mass—three or more people killed in a single event.Serial—several victims killed in three or more separate events and over time.
13 Forcible Rape…the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will; unlawful sexual intercourse with a female by force & against her willIncludes:Assault or attempt to commit rape by force or threat of forceExcludes:Assault if victim is maleStatutory rape (without force)Same-sex rapesOther sex offenses
14 Forcible Rape: One of the most underreported violent crimes Many victims do NOT report because they:Think the police won’t be able to catch the suspect.Believe that the police will be unsympathetic.Want to avoid the embarrassment of publicity.Fear reprisal by the rapist.Fear additional “victimization” by court proceedings.Want to keep family/friends from knowing.Most rapes are committed by acquaintances of victim, as in the case of date rape.Most rapists appear to be motivated by the need to feel powerful.Use of the “date rape drug” Rohypnol is rising.
15 Aggravated Assault Includes: Excludes: …unlawful inflicting of serious injury upon the person of another.Includes:Attempted assaults, especially when a deadly weapon is used or medical assistance is required for the victimThe possible use of a gun, knife, or other weapon that could result in serious injuryExcludes:Simple assaults (battery)- pushing/shoving, fistfights
16 Robbery…the unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.Requires face to face confrontation between perpetrator & victimExcludes:Pick pocketing (larceny/theft)Purse snatching
17 Burglary …unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft. Types of burglaries:Forcible entryUnlawful entry without forceAttempted forcible entry
18 Larceny–theft…unlawful taking or attempted taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another (excludes motor vehicles).Includes (in declining order of frequency):Theft from motor vehiclesShopliftingTheft from buildings
19 Larceny–theftIs the most frequently reported crime (yet still greatly underreported).Theft of motor vehicle parts and accessoriesBicycle theftsTheft from coin-operated machinesPurse snatchingPocket picking
20 Motor Vehicle Theft Includes Excludes …the theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle.A “motor vehicle” is a self-propelled vehicle that runs on land and not on rails.Includesautomobilesmotorcyclesmotor scooterstrucksbusessnowmobilesExcludestrainsairplanesbulldozersmost farm equipmentShips/boatsspacecraftCarjacking-the taking of a motor vehicle directly from the owner by forceLegally, carjacking is a type of robbery- not motor vehicle theft.It accounts for just over 1% of all car thefts.
21 Arson…the burning or attempted burning of property, with or without the intent to defraud.…does not include fires of unknown or suspicious originsMost common type of arson is the burning of structures, followed by the burning of vehiclesLow clearance rate—18.7%Average loss per offense—$17,289
22 2010 Crime Clock – Violent Crimes 2.12010 Crime Clock – Violent CrimesOne Murder every minutesOne Forcible Rape every minutesOne Robbery every minutesLecture NotesSource: Adapted from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in United States, 2009 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2010)One violent crime is committed every 23.9 seconds.Teaching TipsIt is important to point out the frequency in which these crimes occur > bring back the discussion from Topic #1 of the perceptionYou can update this clock by logging into the FBI Crime Statistics website.Ask students if they are surprised by the data.If you have a student response system, show the data for comparison.If possible, find previous years, clock and compare.It is important here to talk about the fear (indicated in their responses) and the actual data.Why?Discuss the influence of the media and other issues discussed in Topic #1.One Aggravated Assault every seconds
23 20 Crime Clock – Property Crimes 2.120 Crime Clock – Property CrimesOne Burglary every secondsOne Larceny-theft every secondsOne Motor Vehicle Theft every secondsLecture NotesSource: Adapted from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in United States, 2009 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2010)One property crime committed every 3.4 seconds.Teaching TipsIt is important to point out the frequency in which these crimes occur > bring back the discussion from Topic #1 of the perceptionYou can update this clock by logging into the FBI Crime Statistics website.Ask students if they are surprised by the data.If you have a student response system, show the data for comparison.If possible, find previous years, clock and compare.It is important here to talk about the fear (indicated in their responses) and the actual data.Why?Discuss the influence of the media and other issues discussed in Topic #1.
24 Major Crimes Known to the Police, 2010 2.1Major Crimes Known to the Police, 2010OffenseNumberRate per 100,000Clearance RatePersonal/Violent CrimesMurder16,2725.463.6Forcible Rape89,00029.340.4Robbery441,855145.326.8Aggravated Assault834,885274.654.9Property CrimesBurglary2,222,196730.812.5Larceny-Theft6,588,8732167.019.9Motor Vehicle Theft956,846314.712.0Arson156,97224.118.0Teaching TipsYou can update this graph as well. You will want to locate the most current information from the federal website.If a graph is not available, create one through PowerPoint or Excel.If you have a student response system, you can compare the student responses with the actual statistics and talk about the differences.If possible, compare with previous year statistics and discuss trends – poll the class about reasons for changes.U.S. Total11,206,8993,685.01Arson can be classified as either a property crime or a violent crime depending on whether personal injury or loss of life results from it’s commission. It is generally classified as a property crime, however. Arson statistics are incomplete for 2010.Source: Adapted from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 2010 (Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2011).
25 Part II Offenses Part II offenses are less serious than Part I Offenses and include many social order offenses, such as:Simple assaultDriving under the influenceProstitutionVandalismReceiving stolen propertyFraudEmbezzlement
26 NCVS National Crime Victimization Survey Based on victim self-reports Designed to measure the “dark figure” of crime (crimes not reported to the police and remain unknown to officials)Uses data collected by the Bureau of Justice StatisticsMore than 43,000 households are surveyed twice per yearMeasures “households” touched by crimesIncludes data on:RapeRobberyAssaultBurglaryPersonal and household larcenyMotor vehicle theftThe National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) was started in 1972, partially as a response to problems with UCR:Based on self reports, rather than police reports.Designed to estimate the occurrence of all crimes, whether reported or not.The Bureau of Justice Statistics collects and publishes data collected through a cooperative arrangement with the U.S. Census Bureau.Interested in the “dark figure of crime” (crimes not reported to the police and remain unknown to officials).NCVS employs a hierarchical counting system.Counts only the most “serious” incident in any series of criminal events perpetrated against the same individual.Includes both attempted and completed offenses.Detailed information is asked regarding:Victim characteristicsExtent of injury or lossRelationship to offenderWhether or not crime was reported to police
27 NCVS Statistics Reveal About 1/2 of all violent crime is reported: Slightly more than 1/3 of all property crime is reported.15% of all U.S. households are affected by crime annuallyVictims are more likely:MenYounger peopleAfrican AmericanCity residentsLower income (for violent victimization)Household crime rates are highest for households:Headed by African-AmericansHeaded by younger peopleWith six or more membersHeaded by rentersLocated in central citiesNCVS statistics for recent years reveal the following:Approximately 15% of American households are touched by crime every year.18.7 Million – based on 2010 NCVS (U.S. residents age 12 or older)About 16 million victimizations occur each year.City residents are almost twice as likely as rural residents to be victims of crime.About half of all violent crimes, and slightly more than one-third of all property crimes, are reported to police.Victims of crime are more often men than women.Younger people are more likely than the elderly to be victims of crime.Blacks are more likely than whites or members of other racial groups to be victims of violent crimes.Violent victimization rates are highest among people in lower-income families.
28 Comparison of UCR/NIBRS and NCVS Data, 2010 2.2Comparison of UCR/NIBRS and NCVS Data, 2010OffenseUCR/NIBRSNCVS1Personal/Violent CrimesHomicide16,272—Forcible Rape289,000203,830Robbery441,855551,830Aggravated Assault834,885839,940Property CrimesBurglary32,222,1963,188,620Larceny6,588,87312,335,400Motor Vehicle Theft956,846795,160Arson456,972Teaching TipsDiscuss the differences between both survey instruments.Ask students to weigh in on the differences.Total of All Crimes Recorded11,206,89921,312,40051NCVS data cover “Households touched by crime,” not absolute numbers of crime occurrences. More than one victimization may occur per household, but only the number of households in which victimizations occur enters the tabulations.2NCVS statistics include both rape and sexual assault.3NCVS statistics include only household burglary and attempts.4Arson data are incomplete in the UCR/NIBRS and are not reported by the NCVS.5IIncludes NCVS crimes not shown in the table, including 3.3 million simple assaults.Source: Compiled from U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Victimization, 2010 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011); and Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 2010 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2011).
29 UCR/NIBRS Part II Offenses, 2010 2.1UCR/NIBRS Part II Offenses, 2010Part II OffensesOffense CategoryNumberSimple Assaults1,298,342Forgery and Counterfeiting90,127Fraud234,199Embezzlement21,402Stolen Property (e.g., Receiving)111,319Vandalism285,012Weapons (e.g., Carrying)179,661Prostitution and Related Offenses75,004Sex Offenses (e.g., Statutory Rape)79,914Drug-Law Violations1,702,537Gambling9,811Offenses Against the Family (e.g., Nonsupport)118,419Driving Under the Influence1,483,396Liquor-Law Violations625,939Public Drunkenness611,069Disorderly Conduct685,985Vagrancy33,852Curfew Violations/Loitering133,063Runaways109,225Lecture NotesThe UCR Program also includes information on what the FBI calls Part II offenses.Part II offenses, which are generally less serious than those that make up the Part I offenses category, include a number of social-order, or so-called "victimless", crimes.Statistics on Part II offenses are for recorded arrests, not for crimes reported to the police.Teaching TipsPoll the class: Ask the class which of these crimes they have committed over the course of the past month. Stress that it is anonymous.You can find updated data on the federal website.If possible, compare from year to year and discuss the trends or compare with the results from the student poll in class.Source: Adapted from Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 20010(Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, 2011).
30 Crime TypologyA classification of crimes along a particular dimension, such as legal categories, offender motivation, victim behavior, or the characteristics of individual offenders.Crime Against Women- Date rape, familial incest, spousal abuse, stalkingStalking- as repeated harassing and threatening behavior by one individual against another which may be planned or carried out in secret—perpetrator must usually make a credible threat of violence against the victim or members of the victim’s immediate familyCyberstalking- use of the Internet, , and other electronic communication technologies to stalk another personCrimes against Women: Date rape, familial incest, spousal abuse, stalking, and the exploitation of women through social order offenses like prostitution and pornography are major issues facing American society today. Studies have shown that more must be done to alleviate the social conditions that result in the victimization of women. Stalking is defined as repeated harassing and threatening behavior by one individual against another, aspects of which may be planned or carried out in secret. Stalking might involve following a person, appearing at a person’s home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person’s property. Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim or members of the victim’s immediate family. Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, , and other electronic communication technologies to stalk another personCrimes against the Elderly: The likelihood of victimization declines as an individual gets older. Most elderly victims are victims of property crimes, victimized in their homes, are victimized by strangers, are more likely to report the crime to police, and are physically injured. They are more often victims of con artists. In cases of physical violence, it is either domestic abuse (from a caregiver) or institutional abuse which occurs in a residential setting such as a nursing homes.Hate Crimes: as defined by UCR/NIBRS – a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national origin. Most hate crimes consist of intimidation, although vandalism, simple assault, and aggravated assault also account for a number of hate-crime offenses. They can also be referred to as bias crimes.White Collar Crimes (and Corporate): The recent economic downturn, combined with the collapse of the housing market and a loss of jobs in many sectors of the economy, has sparked a rapid growth in mortgage fraud scams. Under the American system of criminal justice, corporations can be treated as separate legal entities and can be convicted of violations of the criminal law under a legal principle known as the identification doctrine . Corporate crime is defined as a violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity. White-collar crime is violation of the criminal law, committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his or her occupation. White-collar crime also includes nonviolent crime for financial gain, utilizing deception and committed by anyone who has special technical or professional knowledge of business or government, irrespective of the person’s occupation.Organized crime: The unlawful activities of organized groups that operate across national boundaries are especially significant. Such activity is referred to as transnational organized crime. Organized crime is the unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods or services, including gambling, prostitution, loan-sharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering, and other unlawful activities.Gun crime: Constitutional guarantees of the right to bear arms have combined with historical circumstances to make ours a well-armed society. Many crimes are committed with or a firearm is used during the crime. There are federal and state laws which govern the sales and possession of weapons.Drug crime: The continued rise of drug related crimes in America has contributed to the rise of the prison population. Alone, drug-law violations are themselves criminal, but more and more studies are linking drug abuse to other serious crimes. Drug-related offenses continue to increase the burden on the criminal justice system.Cybercrime: Any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology; also, any violation of a federal or state cybercrime statute.Terrorism: Since the attacks of 9/11, the potential threat of attack has become a focus of law enforcement – not just attacks on citizens, but infrastructure (power, water, etc.) as well.
31 Crime Typology (cont’d) Crime Against the ElderlyThe elderly generally experience the lowest rate of victimization—both violent and property—of any age group.more likely than younger victims to:Be victims of property crime than of violent crime.Face offenders who are armed with guns.Be victimized by strangers.Be victimized in or near their homes during daylight hours.Report their victimization to the police.Be physically injured.Be less likely to try to protect themselves during victimization.
32 Crime Typology (cont’d) Hate Crime- a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity/national originMost consist of intimidation, but they may also include vandalism, simple and aggravated assault, and murder.Most are motivated by racial bias.
33 Crime Typology (cont’d) Corporate & White-Collar CrimeIdentification doctrine- Corporations can be treated as separate legal entities and convicted of violations of the criminal lawCorporate crime- violation of a criminal statute by a corporate entity or by its executives, employees, or agents acting on behalf of and for the benefit of the corporation, partnership, or other form of business entity.White-collar crime- violation of the criminal law, committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his or her occupation
34 Crime Typology (cont’d) Organized Crime- unlawful activities of the members of a highly organized, disciplined association engaged in supplying illegal goods or services, including gambling, prostitution, loan- sharking, narcotics, and labor racketeering, and other unlawful activitiesTransnational organized crime- occurs when these crimes are committed across national boundariesGun Crime-Approximately 1 million serious crimes involve use of a handgun.10,000 murders in the United States using firearms annually.
35 Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (1994) Prior to purchasing a handgun, there will be a5-day waiting periodInstant criminal background checkLicensed importers, manufacturers, and dealers are required to:Check photo IDSubmit purchaser’s applicationAcquire a unique identification number authorizing the purchase
36 Crime Typology (cont’d) Drug CrimeRate of drug related crime has more than doubled since 1975.Federal drug prosecutions increased from 11,854 in 1984 to nearly 30,000 in 2002.Studies link drug abuse to other serious crimes.Cybercrime- Any crime perpetrated through the use of computer technology; also, any violation of a federal or state cybercrime statute.Terrorism- Since the attacks of 9/11, the threat of attack on citizens & infrastructure(power, water, etc.) as whas become a focus of law enforcement