Presentation on theme: "Foot Marches FM 21-18 SSG Millington. Introduction ä Many examples of successful marches exist throughout out the history of warfare. An outstanding example."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction ä Many examples of successful marches exist throughout out the history of warfare. An outstanding example during WW II was the grueling foot march during the Sicilian campaign from 20 to 21 July 1943, which was made by the 3rd Battalion, 30th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division.
Introduction Continue ä The battalion was directed to move on foot across mountainous terrain from Aragona to San Stefano to participate in a coordinated attack against enemy forces in San Stefano. The battalion made this record braking 54 miles cross-country march in a record braking 33 hours.
Task Taught or Supported ä Complete a 3 km road march. ä Complete a 5 km road march. ä Complete a 8 km road march. ä Complete a 10 km road march.
Individual Task 1of 3 ä Report enemy information ä Send radio message ä Engage targets with an M16A2 rifle ä Employ hand grenades ä Practice preventive medicine ä Move under direct fire ä Move over, through or around obstacles
Individual Task 2of 3 ä React to indirect fire while dismounted ä React to flares ä Select temporary fighting positions ä Camouflage yourself and individual equipment ä Practice noise and light discipline ä Put on, wear, remove, and store your M40A2 protective mask with hood.
Individual Task 3of 3 ä Recognize and react to chemical or biological hazard ä React to nuclear hazard ä Evaluate a casualty
Duty ä Soldier report enemy forces. ä Soldier properly engages targets with an M16A2 rifle. ä Solder protects self using his M40A2 protective mask. ä Solder reacts to nuclear hazard.
Personal Courage ä Solder moves under direct fire. ä Soldier moves over, through and around obstacles. ä Soldier reacts to indirect fire. ä Soldier reacts to flares.
Integrity ä Solder properly assumes a temporary fighting position. ä Soldier practice noise, light and litter discipline. ä Solder practice personal hygiene and field conditions. ä Solder practices human waste disposal in field conditions.
Equipment for a Company 1of 2 ä Bayonet, M16A2 Rifle240 ä Mask Protective M40A2240 ä Rifle M16A2240 ä Machine gun M604 ä Radio PRC 77 OR 1196 ä Firing Adapters240 / 4 ä Magazine, 30 Rounds1200
Equipment for a Company 2of 2 ä Tool combination, M605 ä Battery Dry BA5590/U16
Ammunition Requirements 1 of 3 ä CTG, 5.56 mm blank, M200FM1 20 RM4 10 RM5 50 ä CTG, 7.62 mm blank M60FM1 500 RM4 200 RM5 300
Ammunition Requirements 2 of 3 ä Grenade Hand Smoke HCFM14 RM42 RM52 ä Grenade Hand, CS M7FM14 RM41 RM51
Safety Requirements ä Electrical Storms ä Snake Bites ä Heat Casualties ä Cold Weather Injuries ä Medical Support
Types of Foot Marches ä Day March ä Limited visibility ä Forced March ä Shuttle March
March Discipline ä Noise Discipline ä Formation ä Commanders will designate the side of the roads troops will march on. ä Rate of March ä Distance between individuals. ä Day 2-5 Meters / Night 1-3 Meters ä Distance between elements ä Day 100 Meters between Company / Platoons 50 meters ä Limited visibility will decrease by 50%
Security Measures ä Passive Measures ä Includes the use of concealed routes and assemble areas and movements on protected routes, night marches, increased intervals between elements and dispersion when under attack using noise and light discipline ä Active Measures ä Includes the use of organic and attached weapons in accordance with the units air defense plan during marches scanning sectors of observations.
Field Sanitation ä Field Water Supply ä Disposal of Human Waste ä Poison Plants ä Insect Control
Water Discipline ä All soldiers must hydrate before each march to aid sustainment during the movement. ä Drink only treated water from approved sources. ä Drink water often. Great quantity of water should be drank before, during and after. ä Drink water slowly to prevent cramps or nausea. ä Avoid spilling water and use it sparingly for bathing.
Personnel Hygiene ä Personnel cleanliness. ä Protection against the elements. ä Protection against disease caring insects ä Avoidance of the sources of disease. ä Special protective measures.
Foot Care1 of 2 ä Foot hygiene and sanitation are extremely important sense feet are enclosed in heavy rigid footwear during most working hours and are constantly in action. Foot care involves: ä Good hygiene measure such as bathing frequently and using foot powder. ä Wearing properly fitted footwear to allow for ventilation.
Foot Care 2 of 2 ä Wearing clean, dry, unmended, and properly fitted socks (preferably cushion soled) with seams and knots outside. ä Trimming toenails every 2-3 weeks. Toenails should be cut short and square ( straight across)
Common Foot Trouble ä Blisters and abrasions. ä Treatment of blisters should be done by qualified persons. If one is not available, procedures outlined in FM 21-18 should be followed. ä Feet perspiration ä Athletes foot. ä Frostbite
Special Care ä Prior to the march. ä Take preventive measures such as ä Trimming toenails ä wearing proper socks ä alternating boots ä During halts ä During the halt lie down with the feet elevate. If time permits massage the feet apply foot powder, change socks, and medicate and protect blisters.
Special Care Continue ä After the march ä When the march is over, repeat care of feet, wash and dry socks, and dry boots. Medicate blisters, abrasions, corns, and calluses. Inspect painful feet for sprains and improperly fitted boots and socks.
Halts ä During a march halts are inverse routinely to rest personnel and adjust equipment. They are regulated by SOP or by the movement order. ä 15 minute halt after first 45 minutes of marching after that 10 minutes for every 60 minutes is required. ä Soldiers should remove or loosen their gear or lie down with their feet elevated for optimum relaxation if situation permits. Security must be first considered.
Halts Continue ä During schedule halts local security to include at least one OP for each platoon is immediately established. OP`s should not be established outside the range of small arms and should be retrievable so that the unit is ready to move at a moment notice. When unscheduled halts and actions occur, the first priority is to establish security and to have each unit form a hasty perimeter.
Attack During a Halt ä During the halt, local security has to be established by the unit, if the security element / observation post (OP) is fired upon, they return fire. ä The main body will take cover in their assigned sectors.
Artillery Attack ä If the unit is attacked by indirect fire during the foot march, the unit in contact continues to move quickly through the barrage. ä If the unit is attacked by indirect fire during the foot march, the unit not in contact attempts to bypass the impact area.
Ambush ä In the kill zone increase speed, fight through, and report the ambush. ä Based on the commanders orders, conduct a hasty attack or establish a blocking position. ä Units not in the kill zone on order will either conduct a hasty attack or aid in extracting the ambush unit through assault by fire or direct assault on the ambush position.
NBC ATTACK ä The first action on suspected chemical attack is to mask and give warning. ä If possible (based on the mission and situation) the unit should by pass the known or suspected contaminated area.
Cross or go Through NBC Area ä Use MOPP Level 4 ä Avoid moving through or under brush. ä Stay on hard surface roads. ä Cover as much as equipment as possible ä Avoid low areas. ä Avoid vehicle tracking to reduce secondary contamination ä Decrease speed. ä Increase vehicle intervals.
If You Must Cross An NBC Area ä Wear regular wet weather gear with a scarf or handkerchief over nose and mouth. ä Avoid disturbing road dust. ä If possible dampen hardtop and dirt roads to prevent contaminated dust. ä Ensure that the IM-174 Radiacmeter is use by the unit march.
Booby Traps ä If trap is spotted, halt the column. ä Bypass or go over the trap as directed by the squad leader or platoon leader.
Night Movements ä Move around thick underbrush, dense woods, and ravines. ä Note: Move as quickly as circumstances allows, but avoid running if possible. ä Keep all lights concealed. ä Watch and feel for trip wires. ä Distance between soldiers depends on blackness of the night.
Avoid Danger Areas ä Open areas ä Roads and trails ä Native villages ä Enemy positions ä Mine fields ä Streams
Ground Flares ä Aground flare set off nearby usually means the enemy has seen out or suspects your presence. ä If caught in the light of a ground flare, move quickly out of the light. ä Keep moving until you are well away from the area.
Aerial Flares ä May be fired from mortars, artillery, or hand held projectors. ä If you set off a flare, or hear one fired, get down while it is rising and conceal yourself before it burst. ä If in the light freeze in place until it burns out. ä If in open area crouch low or hit the ground.
Commanders Duties ä Before the march- issues warning order ä During the march- Marches at the head until the SP the moves to a point for best supervision. ä During Halts- Supervise establishments of security, foot inspections, water discipline, sanitation, safety,and adjustment of loads. ä After the March- Before the completion moves to the head and moves the company into the AA.
Executive Officer Duties ä Assist the commander ä Takes command if commander not present. ä Supervises the pace setter. ä Post and supervises company traffic guards and guides.
Platoon Leader ä Before: Informs the Platoon Inspects Uniforms Equipment ä During: Prescribe distance, compliance of march discipline, controls straggling, and grants permission to fall out, scanning assigned sectors ä Halts: Clear the roads, establish security, enforces march discipline, checks conditions of the soldiers, and time ä After- PLT moves to assigned areas, supervise the SQD LDR in their duties, foot inspections, medical attention.
Squad Leader ä Before: provides detailed instructions, inspects boots, socks, prepares a medical kit. ä During: marches at the head, proper distance, scanning, rate of march, enforces march discipline. ä At Halts: assist the platoon leader. ä After: squad sectors, reports condition of soldiers, prepares and continue missions.
Pace Setter ä Experienced soldier ä carry the same load ä 4 - 10 meters at head of column ä maintain rate of march ä 106 steps per min / 30 in step / 4 kph ä Should be medium height, normal strides
Guides ä Lead or direct the unit ä Given detailed instructions ä Given strip map ä Accompany the lead element
Traffic Guards ä Placed 50 meters to front and rear ä Slow or stop oncoming or passing traffic ä Places at road intersection and other critical locations. ä Stop traffic while column passes and act as guides ä Use flashlights or lanterns at night to control traffic
Summary ä Individual Task ä Duty, Personal Courage, Integrity ä Equipment ä Safety Requirements ä Types of Foot Marches ä March Discipline ä Security Measures
Summary Continued ä Water Discipline ä Personnel Hygiene ä Foot Care ä Special Care ä Halts