INSPIRATION for change APA: Documentation and Format A Workshop from the Writing Support Center Featuring 6 th edition updates
INSPIRATION for change Individual Differences 1 Individual Differences in Bimodal Processing and Text Recall Bruce R. Dunn and Kate I. Rush University of West Florida THE TITLE PAGE (APA, p. 41) For Research Papers Note: If you use a Running head, it must appear as a header on each page (APA 6 th ed., p. 42).
INSPIRATION for change  Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology [1 ½] GLOBALIZATION AND EDUCATION [2 ½] A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in Organizational Leadership by Jane Doe Student May, 2007 Anne Smith, Ph.D. - Dissertation Chairperson Title Page for Pepperdine Dissertation Title Page for Pepperdine Dissertation (EDUCATION)
INSPIRATION for change  Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology [1 ½] POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: AN ASSESSMENT STRATEGY [2 ½] A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Psychology by Jane Doe Student May, 2007 Anne Smith, Ph.D. - Dissertation Chairperson Title Page for Pepperdine Dissertation Title Page for Pepperdine Dissertation (PSYCHOLOGY)
INSPIRATION for change Levels of Headings Think of heading levels as outline levelsor groupingsbut with different indentation rules. First, determine how many groupings youre using for your paper: Countries [first grouping] States [second grouping] Okay, so we have two levels.
INSPIRATION for change TWO LEVELS LOOK LIKE THIS: Countries (bold, upper/lowercase) Text begins here. States (bold, flush left, upper/lowercase) Text begins here.
INSPIRATION for change Countries States Counties. (Text begins here.) Note: Levels 3-5 are followed by period, are lowercase, and text always begins next to heading. THREE LEVELS
INSPIRATION for change FOUR LEVELS Countries States Counties. Cities.
INSPIRATION for change FIVE LEVELS Continents Countries States. Counties. Cities. (No bold…)
INSPIRATION for change REFERENCES Most references should include: –Authors name –Title of work –Publication information
INSPIRATION for change A Sample Reference Page Globalization 183 References Borjas, G. (2005). Globalization and immigration. In M. Weinstein (Ed.), Globalization: Whats new? (pp. 75-95). New York: Columbia University. Fischman, G. E. (2007). The university, state, and market: The political economy of globalization in the Americas. Comparative Education Review, 51(2), 251-253. Rawls, J. (1999). A theory of justice. Cambridge: Belknap Harvard University Press. Rethinking globalization: Teaching for justice in an unjust world. Social Education, 71, 15-25.
INSPIRATION for change Only the major publication for each entry is italicized: (Article title, Journal Title) All reference pages are double-spaced throughout (exception: dissertation reference pages). Capitalization rules vary, depending upon type of reference (e.g., book vs. journal). Each reference entry is indented after the first line (hanging indent). Never use underlined or colored text in references. Helpful Hints...
INSPIRATION for change Reference Examples Book Clifford, J. (1997). Routes: Travel and translation in the late twentieth century. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. (Always include city and state.) Article in a Magazine Stein, J. (2003, October 5). Asias diaspora. The New Yorker, 40-45. As citation: (Stein, 2003).
INSPIRATION for change A Newspaper Article, No Author: Darfurs refugees: High motivation, few resources. (2004, September 14). New York Times, p. A17. As citation: (Darfurs, 2004, p. A17). In place of author, use first word or two of title in quotes.
INSPIRATION for change Reference Examples Article in a journal (printed version only) Roy, A. (1982). Suicide in chronic schizophrenia. British Journal of Child and Family Studies, 141(2), 171- 177. Volume number is italicized; issue number is not. Each significant word in journal title is capitalized. As citation: (Roy, 1982, pp. 171-172).
INSPIRATION for change Reference Examples Electronic issue of printed journal (article with DOI¹): Cole, M., & Bedeian, A. (2007). Leadership consensus as a cross- level moderator. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(5), 447-462. doi: 0.1016/jleaqua.2007.07.002 ¹Digital Object Identifier *No retrieval date necessary since this is the final (archival) version. *No database name needed since DOI takes the place of database name or accession number. As citation: (Cole & Bedeian, 2007).
INSPIRATION for change Journal Article (from database), No DOI Hager, M. (2007). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues and considerations. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 22(1), 28-36. Retrieved from http://www.topicsinclinicalnutrition.com As citation: Hager (2007) argues… *Give exact URL (if content is open-access) or URL of journal home page (if content is accessible only by subscription). *No retrieval date is included because the above article is the final version.
INSPIRATION for change Chapter in Edited Book Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger (Ed.) Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. As a citation w/quote: (Bjork, 1989, p. 310).
INSPIRATION for change Dissertation French, M. (2006). The alignment between personal meaning and organizational mission. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3241802) For hard-copy only: French, M. (2006). The alignment between personal meaning and organizational mission. (Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2006). Dissertation Abstracts International, 67, 11.
INSPIRATION for change INTERNET-ONLY SOURCES Should include: Title or description of document Date of posting or update Retrieval date URL (address) Use document names, not home or menu pages Ensure that the URLs you cite work.
INSPIRATION for change ONLINE REFERENCES U.S. Government Report on Web site: U.S. Department of State. (2004, June). Victims of trafficking and violence protection act of 2000: Trafficking in persons report. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/ Do not include a period at the end of a URL since readers must be able to access the references site correctly.
INSPIRATION for change CITING A WEB SITE If there is no author listed, use the article/topic title as the identifier: Human subject research. (n.d.). Pepperdine University Web site. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://services.pepperdine.edu/irb/ Direct quote citation: (Human, n.d., ¶ 2)
INSPIRATION for change DICTIONARIES Online Dictionary Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Websters online dictionary. Retrieved October 20, 2005, from http://www.m-w.com /dictionary/ Citation: (Heuristic, n.d.). Printed Dictionary Mish, F. (Ed). (2007). Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (11 th ed.) Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Citation: (Mish, 2007, p. 399).
INSPIRATION for change Annual Report Pearson PLC. (2005). Reading allowed: Annual review and summary financial statements 2004. Retrieved from http://www.pearson.com/investor/ar2004/pdfs/summary_report _2004.pdf Fact Sheet RAND Corporation. (2006). Three steps for improving mental health care in the United States [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs /2006/RAND_RB9190.pdf The organization is usually the author of these types of documents. Use brackets to describe the type of document when it is otherwise unclear. Divide lengthy URLs by striking the Enter key before a slash or underscore.
INSPIRATION for change 6 th Edition Reference Change Journal article with DOI, 8 or more authors: Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. Cl., Asgaard, G.,... Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi: 10.1080/14622200410001676305 Note: Include 1 st seven authors, insert ellipses and add last author. From Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associaion, (6 th edition, 2010), p. 198.
INSPIRATION for change REFERENCES There are myriad sources and thus myriad formats for referencing in APA. Beginning on p. 193 of APAs Publication Manual is an extensive list of types of references and corresponding section numbers to indicate formats. Visit : http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspxhttp://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx
INSPIRATION for change USE PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS When summarizing When paraphrasing When quoting* *Direct quotes always require page (or paragraph) number(s) in their citations.
INSPIRATION for change Keys to Parenthetical Citations Keep references brief Give only information needed to identify the source on your reference page Give authors last name, year of publication and, when using a direct quote, page number.
INSPIRATION for change Handling Quotes in Your Text Truss (1996) argues that it would be nice if one day the number of apostrophes properly placed in its equaled exactly the number of apostrophes properly omitted from its (p. 65). OR... It would be nice if one day the number of apostrophes properly placed in its equaled exactly the number of apostrophes properly omitted from its (Truss, 1996, p. 65).
INSPIRATION for change PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS Some details... Two authors, always cite both. (Smith & Hong, 1982) Three, four or five authors, cite all in first citation; subsequent citations cite only first author, et al. (Martin, Villa, & Lewis, 2000) (Martin et al., 2000) Work with six or more authors (Smith et al., 1998) Specific part of a source (Jones, 1995, p. 332) or (Jones, 1995, ¶3) when pages are unnumbered.
INSPIRATION for change PERSONAL COMMUNICATION A reference to an interview, e-mail or other irretrievable correspondence should be included in the text but not in the references. An e-mail from Patti Anne Smith: (P. A. Smith, personal communication, May 16, 2007)
INSPIRATION for change SOME DETAILS Citation from a lecture: (D. M. Rodriguez, SOC. 118 lecture, March 7, 2007). Secondary Source: Smiths study (as cited in Jones, 1993)… On reference page: Jones, M. (1993). Seeing is believing. New York: Penguin Books.
INSPIRATION for change PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include womens personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored (Raitt & Tate, 1997,p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996). However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell (1975), arguing that his study treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions (p. 6). Moreover, Tylee suggests that.... Punctuation always follows the citation, not the ending word, of a sentence. Exception: block quote. When a citation is mentioned as part of the sentence (sentence citations), the year need not be repeated in subsequent in-sentence citations within same paragraph (see ¶2). However, all parenthetical citations must always include the year (see ¶ 1). Adapted from Purdue University Writing Lab Web site, (April, 2004)
INSPIRATION for change Where can I go for additional help with APA documentation? Writing Support Center, West L.A., Room 522, 310-258-2815 Check our Web page: http://services.pepperdine.edu/gsep/writing/http://services.pepperdine.edu/gsep/writing/ APA Publication Manual, 6th edition Check the APA Website: http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx Try the free software RefWorks (now in 6 th edition format) http://library.pepperdine.edu/information/databases/alpha.html?letter=R