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TQM and Quality Control

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Presentation on theme: "TQM and Quality Control"— Presentation transcript:

1 TQM and Quality Control

2 Quality & Quality Management
What does the term quality mean? - Quality is the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer expectations. 7

3 Quality & Quality Management
Design quality: Inherent value of the product in the marketplace Dimensions of Quality includes: Performance, Features, Reliability, Durability, Serviceability, Response, Aesthetics, and Reputation. 7

4 Quality & Quality Management
Conformance quality: Degree to which the product or service design specifications are met The Consequences of Poor Quality Loss of business Liability Productivity Costs 7

5 Internal Failure Costs
Costs of Quality Appraisal Costs External Failure Costs Costs of Quality Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs

6 Quality Certification
Quality Awards -ISO 9000 Various Quality Awards 1. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award  -USA 2. Deming Prize - Japan Quality Certification The ISO 9000 Series Standards ISO ANSI BSI CEN GOST 27

7 ISO 9000 Series ISO 10000 Series ISO 10011 ISO 10013
Quality system auditing guide Quality manual development guide

8 ISO 14000 ISO A set of international standards for assessing a company’s environmental performance Standards in three major areas Management systems - Systems development and integration of environmental responsibilities into business planning Operations - Consumption of natural resources and energy Environmental systems - Measuring, assessing and managing emissions, effluents, and other waste

9 Total Quality Management (TQM)
Is a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment.  One way to think of TPM is "deterioration prevention" and "maintenance reduction", not fixing machines. TPM is a proactive approach that essentially aims to prevent any kind of slack before occurrence. Motto : zero error, zero work-related accident, zero loss.

10 Elements of TQM Continuous improvement Competitive benchmarking
Employee empowerment Team approach Decisions based on facts Knowledge of tools Supplier quality Champion Quality at source

11 Quality Control Six Sigma Quality
A philosophy and set of methods companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe process performance using a common metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)

12 Six Sigma Approach: The PDCA / PDSA Cycle
Plan Do Check /Study Act

13 Six Sigma Approach : DMAIC Cycle
Overall focus of the methodology is to understand and achieve what the customer wants 1. Define (D) Customers and their priorities 2. Measure (M) Process and its performance 3. Analyze (A) Causes of defects 4. Improve (I) Remove causes of defects 5. Control (C) Maintain quality

14 Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement
There are a number of tools which are used for problem solving and process improvement. But Six Sigma methodology could integrate all those nicely. Eight Tools: Flowcharts Check sheets Histograms Pareto Charts Run charts Cause-and-effect diagrams Opportunities Flow diagrams Control charts

15 Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities
Executive leaders must champion the process of improvement Corporation-wide training in Six Sigma concepts and tools Champion Master Black belt Black belts Green belts Yellow belts Setting stretch objectives for improvement Continuous reinforcement and rewards

16 Methods for Generating Ideas
Some additional tools that are useful for process improvement / problem solving are: Brainstorming – Technique for generating a free flow of ideas in a group of people. Quality circles – group of workers who meet to discuss ways of improving products or process. List reduction Balance sheet Paired comparisons

17 Methods for Generating Ideas
Interviewing – Technique for identifying problem and collecting information. 5W2H – A method of asking questions about a process that includes what, why, where, when, who, how, and how much. What organization does it the best? How do they do it? and etc. Benchmarking – Process of measuring performance against the best in the same or another industry.

18 The Shingo System: Fail-Safe Design
Two aspects reflected Single min exchange of die (SMED) Zero defect : Source inspection & Pokayokes Shingo’s argument: SQC methods do not prevent defects Defects arise when people make errors Defects can be prevented by providing workers with feedback on errors Inspection :Successive Check, Self Check, Source Inspection Poka-Yoke / Fail Safe includes: Checklists Special tooling that prevents workers from making errors 21

19 Sources of Defects Sources of defects (in order of importance)
Omitted processing Processing errors Errors setting up work pieces Missing parts Wrong parts Processing wrong workplace Misoperation Adjustment error Equipment not set up properly Tools and jigs improperly prepared 21

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