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The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. -Mark Van Doren

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1 The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. -Mark Van Doren
Cooperative Learning The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. -Mark Van Doren

2 What is Cooperative Learning?
Opening Activity Idea: Group Contribution (see pg 305 for questions to ask prior) The class is asked to brainstorm ways in which individuals contribute to the class as a whole. These are listed on the board. Ex: Adding humor, listening carefully and quietly, making perspective observations, contributing personal experiences, bringing the group back to the topic being discussed, asking someone to clarify a point, summarizing, asking questions, helping people get along. The material is used to stimulate a discussion about how there are many ways of contributing to a class. About a week later, she passes out slips of paper with the name of a student on each slip. Each student in the class receives one slip and is asked to write one positive comment about a contribution the student listed on the slip has made to class. The slips are then handed in and students are given the slip with their name.

3 Cooperative Learning is…
a well-researched instructional strategy which simultaneously addresses academic and social skills. a strategy that has been reported to be highly successful in the classroom.

4 Source: Roger and David Johnson, University of Minnesota, pg 21
According to Roger and David Johnson, University of Minnesota: “Students who work cooperatively on learning tasks tend to relate more positively to their peers, to view learning as more positive and to learn more information.” Source: Roger and David Johnson, University of Minnesota, pg 21

5 Cooperative Learning and its process
Positive Interdependence: Structuring goals and activities so that students must be concerned about the performance of all members of a group. Individual Accountability: Every student is accountable for mastering the material. Face-to-Face Interaction: Students arranged in a way that facilitates actively sharing and discussing the content. Teaching Collaborative Skills: Important group skills to teach students Processing Group Skills: Monitor and reinforce skills learned in cooperative learning.

6 Teachers utilizing cooperative learning have five responsibilities:
To ensure that students understand the learning goals and assessment associated with the activity. To take time to help students understand the reasons behind their decision to implement this method. To help students become better acquainted. To assist students in developing skills for working in groups. To ensure that assessment methods help hold the group and individuals accountable for the goals of the group work.

7 What are the key elements of Cooperative Learning?

8 Positive Interdependence
“We can do it together!” Each group member’s input is… necessary for the group’s success unique compared to that of other members’ required by teacher-created evaluation guidelines used to share materials, roles, goals, rewards or resources Source: Material interdependence-Provide one copy of material. Facilitates the need to share with others. Role Interdependence- Assign each member a role. Goal Interdependence- success is dependent on all members reaching a specific goal. Reward Interdependence- Assigned the same grade or reward to each group member. Resource Interdependence- providing each member only a portion of the info necessary to complete the task.

9 Face-to-Face Interaction
“I’ll help you, and we’ll finish together!” Students… Help explain the assignment to others Share their own knowledge to increase the group’s understanding Discuss the topic while learning Connect personal experiences and prior learning with task at hand Source:

10 Individual/Group Accountability
“We all have to do our part!” For successful cooperative learning… Small group size ensures all members’ participation Include solo and group assessments Randomly-selected members share group findings “Quality control” officers keep groups on task Students teach others what they have learned Source:

11 Interpersonal Skills Cooperative learning reinforces… Leadership
“How can we work together to accomplish this?” Cooperative learning reinforces… Leadership Decision-making Trust-building Communication Conflict Management Source:

12 Group Processing To ensure that the assignment succeeded…
“What did we learn here?” To ensure that the assignment succeeded… Group members should continually assess their learning and assignment progress Students should provide feedback about how helpful the tasks were The class as a whole should determine which activities should be continued Source:

13 Why use Cooperative Learning?

14 Cooperative Learning enhances student learning by:
Improving students’ academic achievement Increasing students’ self-confidence and motivation Increasing students’ liking of school and fellow classmates Preparing students for success outside of the classroom

15 Cooperative Learning improves students’ academic achievement.
promotes student learning through more active participation motivates students to learn the material increases student retention of material results in greater student productivity

16 Cooperative Learning increases students’ self-confidence & motivation.
provides students with an opportunity to construct their own knowledge helps students to further develop their oral communication skills promotes students’ self-esteem, social competence, and psychological health enhances students’ satisfaction with their learning experience

17 Cooperative Learning increases students’ liking of school & classmates.
promotes positive interaction between members of different cultural and socio-economic groups creates more caring, supportive and committed student relationships provides a shared cognitive set of information between students improves student attendance

18 Cooperative Learning prepares students for success outside of the classroom
promotes the importance of working together to reach goals provides students with the ability to communicate, cooperate, assess, and delegate stresses the significance of students getting along with and communicating with others

19 Activity II: Mac or PC? Group One will research the advantages and disadvantages of using a PC. Group Two will research the advantages and disadvantages of using a Mac. The recorder will record on a T-chart, and the presenter will present the research to the class. Materials: Internet, art materials

20 Cooperative Learning in Action
A 1998 survey revealed that 93% of elementary teachers use cooperative learning in the classroom. This survey also indicated that cooperative learning enhanced students progress socially & academically.

21 In closing… Cooperative Learning is relatively easy to implement and is inexpensive. The positive effects that cooperation has on so many important outcomes makes cooperative learning one of the most valuable tools educators have.

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