Presentation on theme: "January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table"— Presentation transcript:
1 January 17, 2013 Pick up graded papers from round table You will be taking APQ 19 have KP readyHOMEWORK: Please Print and bring:“A Dutch Massacre of the Algonquin”& “The Devastation of the Indies”
2 January 11, QED 17HOMEWORK: Print and read the documents China has an Ancient Mariner and Letter of Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. While reading the articles annotate by highlighting or notating with a “P”, “N”, or “I” those items that are “Positive”, “Negative” and “Interesting”. Bring these pages to class for follow-up analysis and discussion – there will also be a comparative quiz over the articles.
3 When last we met… Emergence of Nation-States Humanism Urbanization Church ProblemsPapal schismProtestant ReformationQuestioning AuthorityLuther & CalvinScientific RevolutionEmergence of Nation-StatesHenry VIIILouis XIVFerdinand & Isabella
7 I. Why not China?Sailing the Indian Ocean and China sea since 1st century BCEHad armed junks with multiple masts and sails since the 2nd century CEJunks had watertight compartments since 2nd century CEChinese ships had axial rudder since 1st century CE
8 China invented the magnetic compass in the 12th century CE Chinese were more advanced with astronomy and celestial navigation
9 Voyages of Zheng HeSailed several naval expeditions to India, Persia, and Africa.Hundreds of ships and thousands of sailors.Some Ships were over 440 ft long and carried 1,000 men
10 Voyages of Zheng He (1405-33 CE) In contrast, Columbus’ fleet only had three ships, the largest only 115 ft. long and carried 40 men.
11 Voyages of Zheng He1433-Chinese government launched no further expeditions.1436-Emperor forbid building ships for overseas voyages.While Spain and Portugal explored and claimed new lands, China withdrew from sea voyage.
12 Why China did not explore the world 1. The Chinese government had an inadequate system of collecting taxes. Spending exceeded revenue.2. Chinese believed that their civilization was superior to all others, so foreign goods were inferior, and there was little to learn from foreigners.
13 Why China did not explore the world 3. Neo-Confucian scholars held many important government posts. Their philosophy suppressed the desire for worldly things. So trade was held in contempt.4. Mid-1400s, Mongols began frequently attacking China’s northern border.
14 Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9th centuryce II. Why Not Arabs?Arabs dominated Mediterranean and Indian Ocean since 9th centuryceArab dhow
15 Why Not Arabs?Arab ships weren’t as big as the Chinese, but they dominated spice islands of Malaysia, gold-rich Africa, and cotton/silk-producing Asia!
16 Indian Ocean TradeArab merchants were ordained by the Prophet. “I commend the merchants to you, for they are the courtiers of the horizons and God’s trusted servants on earth.” ~Mohammed
17 Why Not Arabs?Arabs had developed sophisticated methods of determining latitude
18 Astrolabe & QuadrantWhen a sailor loses sight of land, he must have a method of determining his direction.Astrolabe - determining latitude a simple wooden or brass stick with degrees marked around its edgeQuadrant - A quarter circle measuring 0 to 90 degrees marked around its curved edge.
19 Ibn Battuta (14th century) Arabs traveled for discovery. Ibn Battuta, an Islamic historian traveled over 75,000 miles, making him one of most traveled men of his age. He visited India, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, and the African interior as far south as the Niger River.
20 Ibn Battuta (14th century) His achievements are historically significant; however, since he was often a passenger on voyages and the not the primary explorer he is often overlooked in history books.
21 III. European Incentive The Crusades brought knowledge and goods from Asia and the Islamic world.
22 European Incentive The Mongol Empire had fostered trade between east and west; but it’s collapsedisruptedthis trade.
23 European Incentive Asian spices improved European food. But spice had to be bought from Arabmerchants whoBecameWealthy atthe expenseOf Europe.
24 Trade disadvantage of Europe Lack of trade items; other than gold and silver, Europe had nothing that the east wanted. This led to a drain of wealth in Europe. (imbalance of trade)Lack of technology; Europe did not have the technology to conquer or bypass the Arab world.
25 Trade disadvantage of Europe 3. Geography; Europe was isolated fromAsia. They wereforced to relyon Arab merchantsthat acted as themiddle men inthis tradenetwork.
26 Technological changes of the 15th century Better ships; Europeans developeddeep-draft ships capable of carryingheavy loadson theAtlanticOcean.
27 Technological changes of the 15th century 2. Magnetic compass; Europe adopted the compass from the Arabs who themselves got it from the Chinese.
28 Tchnological changes of the 15th century Mapmaking; Mapmaking enhancedby humanismfrom theRenaissancebecame moreaccurate.
29 European technological changes of the 15th century Gunpowder; Europe adopted the knowledge of gunpowder from the Chinese.Metalwork; European advancements in metalworking allowed blacksmiths to create the first guns and cannons.
30 IV. Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry “The Navigator.”He established a navalobservatory for theteaching of navigation,astronomy, andcartography.
31 Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry sent expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslim hold on Asian trade routes.Why Portugal: land is lined by Atlantic Ocean and Spain. Spain, Genoese, Venetians monopolize trade; Portugal has no access to the Mediterranean; forced to go South.
32 Portuguese Exploration 27 years after Henry's death Bartolomu Dias’ ship rounded the Cape of Good Hope in .
33 Portuguese Exploration In 1497Vasco da Gamarounded theCape and continuedsailing along the eastern coast of Africa.He located a route to India, but had tocontend with Arab strongholds.
34 Portuguese Exploration 1502- deGama returns with 14 heavily armed ships to defeat the Arab fleet.1511- the Portuguese control the Spice routes.1513- Portuguesetrade extended toChina and Japan.
35 V. Spanish ExplorationPortuguese success inspires Columbus to sail west in search of a new route to Southeast Asia (India)Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who wanted to increase Spanish power.Reconquista”-Spain had recently defeated the Muslims (Moors) in Spain and needed wealth to maintain control.They were also eager to Christianize the East.69 days across the Atlantic, lands in the Bahamas, later finds Hispanola swears to his dying day that this is part of the east Indies; there is NO New Continent.1502 Amerigo Vespuci (sailing for the Portuguese) hits land on what is now Brazil proving there is a new continent; first to assert that it is a new land.
36 Spanish ExplorationColumbus reaches the Caribbean which he believes to be the East Indies
38 Line of Demarcation2 catholic countries vying for territory in the new world.1494 Pope (Alexander VI)Spain has the right to claim land west of the linePortugal has the right to claim land east of the lineAlexander IV – 1493, divides Atlantic Ocean in half.
57 “Letter from Christopher Columbus to King Ferdinand” What is Columbus’ POV?His motive?Was his voyage successful?
58 Kirkpatrick Sale “The Conquest of Paradise” “Thinking Historically”Read your assigned excerpt.Focus on Sales point of view and analysis of Columbus’ letter.
59 ? ? ? “The absence of evidence is not the same as evidence of absence” What did Columbus accomplish?Was his voyage successful? According to?POV: Author? Purpose or intent?What effect does this have on your view of this historic event?Is Columbus a villain or merely ethnocentric?
60 The End!1494 – New line draw to make land divide “more fair”