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New Bentgrasses Dr. Leah A. Brilman.

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Presentation on theme: "New Bentgrasses Dr. Leah A. Brilman."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Bentgrasses Dr. Leah A. Brilman

2 Bentgrass Trials Combine different species and types one trial
Differential herbicide/fungicide response Different requirements for thatch control NTEP Trials at Universities - United States National Turfgrass Evaluation Program - Most not managed as on golf course Less mowing, mowing height different No traffic More trials this cycle with no or reduced fungicides Fairway and Greens trials - Greens trial on soil and sand Some varieties in only one trial due to seed availability

3 Bentgrass Trials Management influences - Four sands / One cultivar

4 Creeping bentgrass Standard varieties - Lower density, horizontal growth Seaside, Penncross, Penneagle, Pennlinks Improved varieties - Moderate density for greens, tees and fairways : Providence, SR 1020, Crenshaw, Seaside II, Trueline, Backspin, Putter, Cato, Century, Princeville, Cobra, Viper, Grand Prix, Bengal, Mariner, Regent, Imperial, ProCup, Southshore, 18th Green More upright, versatile Less thatch for fairways Disease and stress resistance important characteristics for selection

5 Creeping bentgrass Improved - Moderate high density for greens, tees and fairways SR 1150, SR 1119, Brighton (SR 1120), Sandhill, Ninety-six two, L-93, LS-44, Alpha, Independence, Bengal, Penneagle II, Pennlinks II, Benchmark DSR, 13-M Higher density than older cultivars - Upright growth Slightly more potential for thatch - watch fertility Most moderately fine texture Select for important disease resistance, color, stress tolerance

6 Creeping bentgrass Versatile varieties - High Density for greens, tees and fairways 007 (DSB), MacKenzie, Memorial, Kingpin High density but with upright growth so more versatile Low tendency for Bentgrass Bloat - scalping Slightly greater thatch management needs Low Poa annua invasion May be combined with Ultra for greens or improved types in fairway blends

7 Creeping bentgrass Ultra varieties - Very high density - greens
Tyee, Authority, T-1, Shark, CY-2, Declaration - new ones this type Penn G-2, G-6, A-1, A-2, A-4, G-1 - all from selections at Augusta, GA - very similar genetics Some high thatch producers - must have budget and equipment to control, some newer upright growth Slower repair aerification holes, ball marks Use smaller diameter holes, topdress frequently Upright, dense growth - good at low height Good wear tolerance

8 Creeping bentgrass Divot repair rate
Variable by cultivar - Penncross not fastest despite reputation Cover may be greater but not fully repaired Higher density varieties sometimes ballmark less but some recover slower All bentgrasses - use sand/seed repair mix Add Chewings fescue into repair mix for faster germination Waiting for 6 weeks to grow in for repair = Poa annua

9 Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998
Creeping bentgrass Damage control study Clemson, University Repair of damage from 2 inch hole in June and August Repair rate differed by type - standard and improved typically better than dense. Percent repair after 6 weeks 1998 Cultivar June Aug. Cultivar June Aug. Penncross Crenshaw Southshore Penn G Putter Crens/Cato Pennlinks Cato Mariner Penn A Viper Penn G SR Providence SR Penn A L Penn G Dominant %

10 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Versatile type with Ultra Greens performance Stress tolerant germplasm High turf quality - Greens, tees and fairways Very high density - All seasons - less thatch Bright medium green color Fine leaf texture Reduced fertilizer requirement Winter-active growth High resistance to dollar spot, brown patch and Fusarium patch

11 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Rutgers Univ. July, 2004 Fairway Trial High stress resistance SR MacKenzie

12 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Utah State University July, 2005 Comparison with Kingpin Brighter color, density SR MacKenzie Kingpin MacKenzie

13 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Greens Trial Caledonia G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan Kingpin Mackenzie

14 Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps)
MacKenzie creeping bentgrass Density of Creeping bentgrass cultivars in Japan. Greens Trial at Caldonian G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan. Greenkeeper Mr. Ishii Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps) Cultivar Stems / sq. cm. MacKenzie SR Authority LS T Penn G Grandprix CY L Penncross

15 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Percent establishment ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a green at Raleigh, NC NTEP – Putting Green Data Cultivar Nov Mean 007 (DSB) MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) Pennlinks II Shark T Tyee (SRX 1GD) Benchmark DSR Penncross Kingpin Authority Independence Penn A Declaration 5%

16 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Density of creeping bentgrass cultivars in greens trials NTEP Trial Data Turfgrass Density ratings 1-9, 9 = Highest Density Summer Fall Cultivar Density Density MacKenzie Tyee Shark Authority Benchmark DSR T CY Declaration Memorial Alpha Penn A Pennlinks II Penncross 5%

17 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a soil green at twelve locations. 2003 NTEP – Putting Green Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality MacKenzie Benchmark DSR 6.4 Declaration T Authority Penn A CY Alpha 6.2 Memorial Pennlinks II 5.8 007 (DSB) Penncross 5.4 Tyee (SRX 1GD) 6.5 Kingpin % 0.2

18 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a green at 10 locations using an 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) or lower cutting height 2003 NTEP – Putting Green Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality Declaration Memorial 6.4 MacKenzie T Authority Benchmark DSR 6.2 Tyee (SRX 1GD) Alpha 6.0 CY Pennlinks II 5.5 Penn A Penncross 5.0 007 (DSB) 6.5 Kingpin % 0.2

19 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Brown patch ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a green at Blacksburg, VA. 2003 NTEP – Putting Green Data Brown Patch ratings 1-9, 9 = No disease Cultivar Mean MacKenzie (SRX 1GPD) 8.5 Kingpin Alpha CY Tyee (SRX 1GD) 8.2 Memorial Penncross 8.0 Shark Pennlinks II 7.5 T Declaration 7.3 Benchmark DSR 7.2 Penn A 5% 1.7

20 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Puyallup, WA July, 2006 Resists Poa annua MacKenzie Kingpin Mackenzie

21 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Rutgers, NJ Fairway trial August, 2006 38 degrees C 95% humidity SR 1119 and MacKenzie Kingpin Mackenzie SR MacKenzie

22 MacKenzie Creeping Bentgrass
Rutgers, NJ Greens established 2003 August, 2006 38 degrees C 95% humidity High Density, growing Kingpin Mackenzie

23 MacKenzie creeping bentgrass
Benefits Excellent performance all year-round Very high density but upright growth Uniform putting surface Excellent wear tolerance Excellent summer performance Reduced fungicide requirements Reduced ball marks High performance greens, tees, fairways

24 SR 1150 creeping bentgrass Moderate high density type
Ideal for green, tees and fairways Excellent turf quality Excellent dollar spot and brown patch resistance Leaf texture and density matches Dominant blends Vigorous, moderately dense growth Bright, dark green color

25 SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass Rutgers University – Dr. Stacy Bonos
Dollar Spot resistant Moderately high density for greens and fairways Color, texture match with SR 1119, Brighton, Sandhill High turf quality High Brown Patch resistance SR 1150 Picture Rutgers Univ., Fairway Trial, July 04

26 SR 1150 Creeping bentgrass Percent dollar spot ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars on a fairway or tee at Lexington, KY NTEP – Fairway or tee Data Cultivar % dollar spot Declaration Pennlinks II SR 1150 (SRX 1PDH) 5.3 Kingpin Mackenzie Penncross L SR Alpha Shark T Independence 5%

27 SR 1150 creeping bentgrass Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a fairway under Traffic Stress in Madison, WI 2003 NTEP – Fairway/Tee Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality Shark L SR T Kingpin Penncross 6.4 Alpha Bengal 6.2 Authority Declaration 6.2 LS Pennlinks II 6.1 Princeville Seaside 5.2 Independence % 1.3

28 Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps)
SR 1150 Density Density of Creeping bentgrass cultivars in Japan. Greens Trial at Caldonian G.C. Chiba Prefecture Japan. Greenkeeper Mr. Ishii Seeded May 9, 2006, Data taken on August 25, 2006 (4 reps) Cultivar Stems / sq. cm. MacKenzie SR Authority LS T Penn G Grandprix CY L Penncross

29 SR 1150 creeping bentgrass Quality ratings of Creeping Bentgrass cultivars grown on a fairway under Reduced Fungicides at Farmingdale, NY - Creeping bentgrasses 2003 NTEP – Fairway/Tee Data Turfgrass Quality ratings 1-9, 9 = Ideal Turf Cultivar Quality Cultivar Quality SR T Pennlinks II Kingpin 6.5 Shark MacKenzie 6.4 Indepedence L SR Authority 6.4 LS Alpha 6.2 Penncross Declaration 6.1 Princeville % 0.4

30 SR 1150 Creeping Bentgrass Temperature of 38 degrees C Humidity 95%
Low fungicides Low N SR SR 1119 Picture Rutgers Univ., NJ Fairway Trial, August, 2006

31 SR 1150 creeping bentgrass Benefits
Versatile for use on greens, tees and fairways Lower maintenance requirements High performance Reduced fungicides Increased genetic diversity

32 Creeping bentgrass blends
Testing Blend performance at Rutgers University, NJ Tyee / 007 SR 1150 / SR 1119 Mackenzie / Sandhill 007 / SR 1150 007 / SR 1119 (Dominant X-treme 7 - N.A.) 007 / Mackenzie 007 / Mackenzie / Tyee Brighton / Sandhill Tyee / SR 7200

33 Bentgrass Strategies Dollar spot resistance - New Michigan State, WI germplasm Stress tolerant - germplasm from AZ with salt and heat tolerance + improved winter color Dense types without excessive thatch Improved varieties to blend with current stable Salt tolerance Snow mold resistance for northern areas

34 Kentucky Bluegrass Types
Dr. Leah A. Brilman

35 Kentucky Bluegrass Strengths Self-repairing High lateral stability
High recuperative ability Dense stand, high quality Excellent mowing quality High cold tolerance Some cultivars with improved drought tolerance Select a blend of types depending on use

36 Kentucky Bluegrass Weaknesses
Poa annua invasion - less options in herbicides - new ones coming on market Slow germination and establishment - heavier seeding rates better Shade tolerance cultivar dependent Bluegrass billbugs Must mix cultivars carefully - use different types to match strengths and weaknesses Not adapted to some regions

37 Kentucky Bluegrass Types
Compact Types CELA Type Compact BVMG Type Midnight Shamrock type America Cheri Type Aggressive Type Julia Type Bellevue Type Common Type Mid-Atlantic Type Other Type

38 Kentucky Bluegrass Types
These types have been verified by DNA analysis Cultivars in most types are closely related genetically Often no or very small DNA differences If planting all of one type = all of one cultivar Greater DNA differences in Aggressive / Mid-Atlantic types - based more on performance Performance strengths and weaknesses are the same within a type

39 Why Blends and Mixtures
Kentucky bluegrass apomictic Cultivar = Single genotype - other turfgrass species are mixture of genotypes Vegetative cultivars comparison Vegetative bentgrasses Vegetative bermudas, zoysias, St. Augustine Merion Kentucky bluegrass - stripe smut Not just for disease resistance

40 Blending bluegrasses Kentucky bluegrass
Melting-out resistance of blend of two cultivars intermediate between same cultivars in monostands Inoculum from susceptible cultivar reduced resistance of resistant cultivar Blends of two cultivars generally show resistance intermediate between each alone (Vargas and Turgeon, Proc. Third ITRC )

41 Blending bluegrasses Early blend analysis - Dr. Funk, Rutgers
Sprigged out plants to ID Aggressive types dominated Aggressive types based on invasion in plots New DNA techniques allow blend analysis (Lickfeldt et al, Crop Sci. 42: ) 3-way blend - Unique, Midnight, Blacksburg Different management and % of each at seeding Final composition, 40% U, 46% M, 14% B

42 Blending bluegrasses Why combine types in blends?
Each type has weakness as well as strengths Single type has weaknesses Midnight types - powdery mildew, winter color, rust susceptibility as seedlings America types - not as dark green Aggressive - dominate in blends Shamrock types - billbug susceptible BVMG - Very stemmy turf, poor winter performance, stripe smut susceptible

43 Conclusions Blends do provide benefit
Learning long term blend peformance Kentucky bluegrasses difficult to breed Cooperative work breeders and NTEP to define types and publish Looking at competitiveness in different environments and management Never use more than 15% perennial ryegrass to maintain at least 50% bluegrass

44 Kentucky Bluegrass Types
NJ Wear - Spring, summer and fall wear (multi - use field) High performers Low performers Compact America Midnight BVMG Julia Cheri Aggressive Common Mid-Atlantic Repeat with wear, compaction different seasons

45 Kentucky Bluegrass Types
WI Wear trial - fall wear Combined with perennial ryegrass varying percentages Only obtained 50% KBG with less than 15% rye No difference between Midnight types, BVMG types, Aggressive types Common types less wear tolerant Midnight, Fairfax more dominant in blends

46 Compact Types Compact, Midnight, America
Low, compact growth High quality turf 1/2 inch cutting height Excellent resistance to Leaf Spot Long Winter dormancy Variable under Summer stress Often purple Winter color

47 Compact Type Argos Indigo Glade Blue-tastic Alpine Moonlight Ram 1
Ascot Moonshadow Nugget Hallmark Blacksburg P-105 Amazon Skye Blackstone Platini Apex Blue Max Conni Broadway Goldstar Wildwood Diva Chicago II

48 Midnight Type Characteristics of compact type Excellent wear tolerance
Very dark green color Late Spring green-up Good heat tolerance Susceptible to powdery mildew Variable resistance to Summer Patch Not good in shade sites

49 Midnight Type Arcadia Midnight Barrister Odyssey EverGlade
Quantum Leap Award NuGlade Midnight Star Total Eclipse Blue Velvet Awesome Perfection NuDestiny Everest Rhythm Impact Tsunami Ginney Absolute Freedom III Liberator Midnight II Beyond Freedom II Alexa Excursion Rugby II Bluestone Courtyard

50 Aggressive Type Aggressive lateral growth
Should have one in Sports Turf Blends High shoot density Very wear tolerant Quickly knit sod and repair May predominate in blend Variable in other characteristics

51 Aggressive Type Cheetah Julius Northstar Orfeo Bariris P-104 Touchdown
Mystic Limousine Brunswick

52 Orfeo Kentucky Aggressive cultivar
• Fast germination and establishment - germination in days Superior germination with high salt levels • High wear tolerance • High sod strength • Tolerant of low light intensity Medium green color

53 Preliminary data after 3 weeks
Salt germination bluegrasses Germination percentage of Kentucky bluegrass varieties at 5,000 ppm salts Preliminary data after 3 weeks Cultivar % Germ Cultivar % Germ Orfeo SR SR Spitfire 3 Baron Bandera 3 Northstar 10 Argos 3 Arcadia Moonlight 0 STR Moonshadow 0 Showcase Touchdown 0 Ulysses % 4

54 Cheetah Kentucky One of the finest Kentucky Bluegrass - aggressive-type bluegrass Adapted to the low light intensity Superior on sports fields Very dense growth habit - similar to Odyssey, Midnight, and Rugby II Early spring green-up Excellent sod strength Very high shade tolerance

55 Julia-Type High turf quality High wear tolerance High density
Rapid establishment Good Summer performance Moderate Winter performance Good Leaf Spot, Stripe Smut resistance Susceptible to Brown Patch, Dollar Spot

56 Julia Type Cultivars Ulysses Rampart Avalanche Julia Caliber Ikone

57 Rampart Kentucky • Julia-type Kentucky Bluegrass
Larger seed - faster establishment • Excellent wear tolerance - look best with wear • High sod strength • High heat tolerance • High drought tolerance

58 Ulysses Kentucky blue Julia type High performance at 1/2 inch cut
Excellent performance with season-long wear Excellent summer persistence Uses: Fairways, Roughs, Sports Fields, Sod Production, Home Lawns

59 America Type Characteristics of compact type
Finer leaf, higher density Some with better rhizomes Better fall and spring growth Moderate Summer recovery High Summer Patch resistance Resistant to powdery mildew Good in shade - should be in Fairway mixes

60 America Type Kingfisher Sonoma Dynamo Showcase Apollo Unique SR 2284
Brilliant Bedazzled Argos Bordeaux Royale America Arrow Boutique Langara Mallard Glenmont

61 Argos Kentucky American/Shamrock cross Compact-America
Low growing, dense turf Shade tolerant Rapid establishment Aggressive rhizome growth High heat tolerance Early spring green-up

62 Mid-Atlantic Type Deep, extensive roots and rhizomes
New cultivars in 2005 Bluegrass NTEP Called RSP-types, some very aggressive Vigorous turf & medium-high density High Summer stress tolerance Early Spring green-up Good Winter performance Rapid recovery from disease and wear

63 Mid-Atlantic Type Touche’ (STR 23180) Starburst (STR 2703) STR 2485
Eagleton Cabernet Monopoly Livingston Preakness Plush

64 Touche’ Kentucky Turf Quality with wear of 2004 CTBT Bluegrass Trial established at North Brunswick NJ Rating with Wear 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Wear .Quality Touche’ (STR (Mid-Atl)) 6.7 STR 2485 (Mid-Atl) 6.2 Rhythm (Mid) 6.2 Bandera (T x K) 5.7 Julia (Julia) 5.7 SR 2100 (Shamrock) 5.3 Midnight (Mid) 5.0 Diva (Compact) 5.0 Julius (Aggr) 4.2 Eagleton (Mid-Atl) 3.8 5% 1.0

65 2005-2006 Rating Turf Quality 1-9, 9 = Best
Touche’ Kentucky Turf Quality of 2004 CTBT Bluegrass Trial established at Rolesville, NC. Rating Turf Quality 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Mean .Quality Touche (STR 23180) 5.9 STR Bandera TxK 5.7 Julia 5.0 Rhythm 4.6 Diva 4.4 Julius 4.3 Midnight 4.3 SR Eagleton 3.5 5% 0.6

66 Starburst Kentucky Turf Quality of 2005 CTBT Bluegrass Species Trial established at Knoxville, TN Quality 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Quality Starburst (STR 2703 Mid-Atl) 7.4 Midnight (Mid) Touche (STR Mid-Atl) 7.2 America (Am) Longhorn (T x K) 7.1 Livingston (Mid-Atl) 7.0 Julia (Julia) Bandera (SPTR 2LM95 T xK) 6.7 Midnight Star (Mid) 6.6 5%

67 Texas X Kentucky bluegrass
Texas bluegrass heat and drought tolerant, extensive and deep rhizomes Kentucky bluegrass turf quality 1st generation low fertility, low germination. Selected superior progeny Some backcrossed to Kentucky bluegrass More extensive rhizomes Greater heat and drought tolerance Must evaluate for diseases, germination vigor, apomixis

68 Texas x Kentucky bluegrass
Many first hybrids poor germination Thermal Blue = HB 129 = BH Reveille sod type good performance Improved establishment High shear strength Excellent rhizomes = good recovery Good wear tolerance in Ohio - new ones high at Rutgers

69 Texas X Kentucky Improved germination High heat tolerance
Active summer growth Need more growth before vernalization for seed Bandera

70 Texas x Kentucky bluegrass
Bandera DuraBlue Fire and Ice Spitfire ThermalBlue Longhorn Fahrenheit 90 Solar Green Reveille

71 Texas X Kentucky bluegrass
Rhizomes on young spaced plants Deep rhizomes contribute to recovery Bluegrass usage further south Top rated for shear strength NTEP

72 Bandera T x K bluegrass Study was done in Rain Out Shelter at Rutgers
Bandera (Reported as Sptr 21m95 instead of SPTR 2LM95) showed less decline than Thermal Blue or Midnight from 10 to 17 days drought, Kept quality longer. Maintained photosynthesis longer than Midnight under drought stress Recovered faster than Midnight or Thermal Blue after 41 days of drought and had a difference in stomatal resistance.

73 Spitfire Texas x Kentucky
Turf Quality of 2005 CTBT Bluegrass Species Trial established at Fayetteville, Arkansas Digital Quality 1-9, 9 = Best Cultivar Digital Color Digital Quality Midnight (Mid) Spitfire (STR 2844 TxK) Longhorn (T x K) Touche (STR Mid-Atl) Bandera (SPTR 2LM95 T xK) America (Am) Midnight Star (Mid) Livingston (Mid-Atl) Julia (Julia) 5%

74 Shamrock Type Moderate Winter color Good resistance to Leaf Spot
Good turf quality and sod strength Billbug susceptible High seed yields Less stemmy than BVMG types Summer performance variable Large seed - quick germination

75 Shamrock Type SR 2100 Champagne Atlantis Parkland Shamrock Champlain
Brooklawn Moonshine Lakeshore Durham Mongoose

76 BVMG Type Wear tolerance poor, not good for sports turf
Use Shmarock types instead for quick germination High seed yields so cheap seed Medium-good turf Stripe Smut susceptible, Billbug susceptible Medium low growth, Medium wide leaves Large seed - quick germ Very stemmy turf Poor Winter performance

77 BVMG Type Cultivars Cannon Abbey Fortuna Marquis Baron Gnome Victa
BlueChip Goldrush Clearwater BlueStar Baronette Merit Crest Nassau Envicta Dragon Raven

78 Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes)
Do not use for sports turf Erect growth and narrow leaf blades Good Summer stress tolerance (may go dormant) High Leaf Spot susceptibility Poor Winter color and performance Early seed production Good for soil stabilization/conservation

79 Common Type (Midwest Ecotypes)
Kenblue Alene Huntsville Park Garfield Piedmont Geary S-21 Cache Ginger South Dakota Rhonde Greenly Voyager Newport Wellington Argyle

80 New Cultivars SR 4600 perennial ryegrass Harrier perennial ryegrass
Calypso III perennial ryegrass SR 8650 tall fescue SR 5250 strong creeping red fescue SR 5130 Chewings fescue Shoreline slender creeping red fescue SR 3150 hard fescue

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