6 BLUEGRASS Vegetative Characteristics: a. boat shaped tip b. light linesc. folded vernationd. membranous ligule
7 2. Kentucky Blue: short ligule, rhizomes 3. Annual Blue: long ligule, weak stolons4. Rough Stalk: bumpy sheath, stolons5. Canada: very flat, sheath, rhizomeOrigin:1. Europe, Asia
8 KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS (Poa pratensis) Use: lawns, fairways, athletic fields1. Apomixis: Seeds without sex. No pollination involved. Seeds develop only from maternal tissue. Genetic uniformity, but makes breeding hard2. widely used3. blends or in mixtures
10 Prefer: sunny, moist, fertile Establishment rate: slow germination (14-21 days)Over 100 cultivars Common types: Newport, Park, KenblueCharacteristics1. Genetic base: Broad2. Growth habit: erect3. Density: low
11 What is a Cultivar?It is a contraction of Cultivated Variety, and means the same thing as variety. It has a specific trade name, and should have unique characteristics that distinguish it from other cultivars. With turfgrasses, it is often hard to distinguish the cultivars. Many look and perform the same, at least under most conditions.
13 2. Turf type (Improved)a. Growth habit: more horizontalb. Density: highc. Disease Resistance:1. Rust2. Leafspot3. Dollarspot4. Fusarium
14 d. Examples: Victa, Rugby, Columbia, Limousine e. Shade tolerant (examples)GladeA-34BristolTouchdownEclipseBaron
15 Management:1. Seed rate: lbs/1000 ft22. Mowing Height:a. Fairways: 1/2-3/4 in.b. Lawns: /2 in.3. Fertilization: lbs/1000In NC: 3 lbs/M4. Use blends, not single cultivar
16 How to Pick Cultivars? National Turfgrass Evaluation Program tests all the common turf species on a continuing basistrials are usually run for four yearsindependent test sites all across USpublishes resultsfor the seed producers, it’s like winning the lottery to come out on top
17 ROUGH STALK BLUEGRASS Poa trivialis Long lived perennial with excellent cold tolerance, good color retentionFine textured, high shoot densityPoor heat, drought tolerancePoor wear toleranceDoes not blend well with other grasses because of color differences
18 ROUGH STALK BLUEGRASS Use: 1. Moist shady areas, winter overseeding Characteristics1. rough sheath2. long ligule3. soft, shiny leaf4. grainy5. apple green6. thin, leafy stolons, no rhizomes
33 Use: lawns, athletic, soil stabilization, roadsides Adaptability:1. Heat/drought: excellent2. Wear: good3. Soils: good in wide pH (4-8)4. Diseases: low but brown patch5. Shade tolerance: good -best in NC6. Establishment: good, faster than bluegrass but slower than rye
38 2. Chewings fescue (F. rubra ssp. commutata) a. bunch type b. examples: Jamestown, Highlightc. Denserd. Heat/cold tolerance: less than CRF3. Hard fescue (F. longifolia)b. examples: Biljart, Scaldis, Reliantc. Heat/drought tolerance: excellent
39 4. Sheep Fescue (F. ovina)a. bunch typeb. Use: soil stabilization,ornamental (blue fescue)Use:1. Mixed with Ky bluegrassshade, drought, infertile soils2. low maintenance
40 Adaptability:1. Drought/shade/infertile soil tolerance: Excellent2. Heat tolerance: very poor3. Wet soil tolerance: very poor4. Recovery rate: poor to fair5. Disease tolerance: poor
47 1. Vegetative: stolonize a. Toronto (C-15) b. Cohansey (C-7) Cultivars:1. Vegetative: stolonizea. Toronto (C-15)b. Cohansey (C-7)c. Washington (C-50)2. Seededa. Penncross*b. Seasidec. Providenced. Pennlinkse. Cato, Crenshaw, L93, A4, G2....
48 Management:1. Seed: lb/1000 ft22. Mowing height: 1/8- 3/16 in. for greens - 1/2 - 3/4 in. for fairways3. Grain control: comb/brush, mow 2X4. Fertilizer: 1/2 - 1 lb/1000ft2/month5. Thatch: topdress6. Syringe to cool surface
49 BENTGRASS VS BERMUDAGRASS Creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass are cool season (C3) and warm season (C4) grasses respectively. This is due to anatomical and physiological differences between the species. In general, C4 plants are more photosynthetically efficient than C3 plants. This is due to their ability to fix CO2 at lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations, maintain higher fixation rates at higher light intensities, and the absence of photorespiration.
50 Photorespiration, associated with C3 plants, increases with temperature and it is for this reason that bentgrass should not be heavily fertilized in the summer. Promotion of growth in high temperatures results in weak plants as a result of a depletion of food reserves. Root loss (50 %) can be expected to occur as soil temperatures approach the mid-seventies. Optimum root growth of C3 grasses occurs at lower temperatures compared to shoot growth.
51 Potential for greater root growth in the fall and especially the following spring along with reduced rates of photorespiration is the rationale behind late fall fertilizationC4 grasses perform best in the summer (80-95oF) and are more subject to winter injury from cold temperatures. Discoloration and the initiation of dormancy occurs when temperatures approach 50oF. Good root growth is experienced in the late spring, summer and early fall.
52 BermudagrassRapid increases in temperature in the spring can result in rapid spring green up and a loss of the root system simultaneously. This is due to the inability of the plant to meet the needs of both the shoot and root system. The shoot system takes priority over the root system. Cultural practices that promote the shoot system should be avoided, e.g., the application of heavy rates of nitrogen or the use of root inhibiting herbicides that may delay the recovery process.
53 Bentgrass Bermudagrass Grass type C C4Optimum shootgrowth oF oFOptimum rootgrowth oF oF50% root loss oF
54 COLONIAL BENTGRASS (A. tenuis) Use: tees, fairways, lawns. Replaced by Kentucky bluegrass and P. rye.Characteristics:1. Northeast, Northwest: cool/moist2. Maintenance: moderate3. Rhizomes, stolons: present, weak4. Thatch: medium5. tolerate close mowing - 1/2 - 3/4"6. high density
56 Cultivars:1. Exeter - good cold2. Astoria3. Highland - good drought
57 TURF COMMUNITIES Definitions: Mixture: Two or more species Blend: Two or more cultivars or a single speciesAdvantages:1. Improve performance over a wide range of conditions-This is especially important for apomictic grasses
58 What should be considered when blending or mixing turfgrasses? 1. Compatibility in: Leaf texture, growth habit, color, shoot density2. Resistance to different pests3. Differ in environmental tolerance
59 Major Blends and Mixtures: Cool Season Grasses:1. Kentucky bluegrass/fine fescue2. Kentucky bluegrass/perennial ryegrass3. Kentucky bluegrass/tall fescue4. Bentgrass/red fescue
60 Major blends and mixtures: For Warm Season Grasses:1. Perennial ryegrass (winter overseeding)2. Perennial ryegrass/rough bluegrass (WOS)3. Tall fescue/bermudagrass