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Presentation on theme: "CHARACTERISTICS OF COOL SEASON GRASSES"— Presentation transcript:

1. Physiological type of Plant: C3 2. Photosynthetic Rate: low 3. Photorespiration Rate: high 4. Area of adaptation:widely adapted in cool humid and cool arid

2 5. Growth habit: rhizomatous: Kentucky bluegrass stoloniferous: Rough stalked bluegrass creeping bentgrass bunch: perennial rye, annual rye, tall fescue 6. Establishment: mostly seeded (sod is considered seeded)

3 Seeding: 1. Blend: combo. of 2 or more cultivars of the same species 2. Mixture: combo. of 2 or more different species Why use blends or mixtures?

4 Grass Types BLUEGRASS RYEGRASS 1. Kentucky 1. Perennial
2. Rough Stalk Annual 3. Annual Intermediate 4. Canada

5 FESCUE BENTGRASS 1. Tall 1.Creeping 2. Meadow 2.Colonial
Fine fescues 3.Velvet 3. Creeping 4. Chewings 5. Hard 6. Sheep

6 BLUEGRASS Vegetative Characteristics: a. boat shaped tip
b. light lines c. folded vernation d. membranous ligule

7 2. Kentucky Blue: short ligule, rhizomes
3. Annual Blue: long ligule, weak stolons 4. Rough Stalk: bumpy sheath, stolons 5. Canada: very flat, sheath, rhizome Origin: 1. Europe, Asia

8 KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS (Poa pratensis)
Use: lawns, fairways, athletic fields 1. Apomixis: Seeds without sex. No pollination involved. Seeds develop only from maternal tissue. Genetic uniformity, but makes breeding hard 2. widely used 3. blends or in mixtures

9 characteristics 1. attractive 2. good recovery
3. wide soil range, adaptable 4. many cultivars 5. wear - good 6. drought - good* 7. shade - poor 8. cold - good - excellent 9. heat - good*

10 Prefer: sunny, moist, fertile
Establishment rate: slow germination (14-21 days) Over 100 cultivars Common types: Newport, Park, Kenblue Characteristics 1. Genetic base: Broad 2. Growth habit: erect 3. Density: low

11 What is a Cultivar? It is a contraction of Cultivated Variety, and means the same thing as variety. It has a specific trade name, and should have unique characteristics that distinguish it from other cultivars. With turfgrasses, it is often hard to distinguish the cultivars. Many look and perform the same, at least under most conditions.

12 Common types: 4. Growth rate: rapid 5. Disease: leafspot
6. Mowing height: high 7. Fertilization requirement: low 2-3 lb/M* *2-3 lb N/1000 ft2/yr = 2-3 #N/1000

13 2. Turf type (Improved) a. Growth habit: more horizontal b. Density: high c. Disease Resistance: 1. Rust 2. Leafspot 3. Dollarspot 4. Fusarium

14 d. Examples: Victa, Rugby, Columbia, Limousine
e. Shade tolerant (examples) Glade A-34 Bristol Touchdown Eclipse Baron

15 Management: 1. Seed rate: lbs/1000 ft2 2. Mowing Height: a. Fairways: 1/2-3/4 in. b. Lawns: /2 in. 3. Fertilization: lbs/1000 In NC: 3 lbs/M 4. Use blends, not single cultivar

16 How to Pick Cultivars? National Turfgrass Evaluation Program
tests all the common turf species on a continuing basis trials are usually run for four years independent test sites all across US publishes results for the seed producers, it’s like winning the lottery to come out on top

Long lived perennial with excellent cold tolerance, good color retention Fine textured, high shoot density Poor heat, drought tolerance Poor wear tolerance Does not blend well with other grasses because of color differences

18 ROUGH STALK BLUEGRASS Use: 1. Moist shady areas, winter overseeding
Characteristics 1. rough sheath 2. long ligule 3. soft, shiny leaf 4. grainy 5. apple green 6. thin, leafy stolons, no rhizomes

19 a. Winterplay (Pure Seed)
Cultivars: a. Winterplay (Pure Seed) b. Colt (Pickseed West) c. Laser (Loft's) Management: 1. Seed rate: 1 - 2 lbs/M lawns lbs/M WOS 2. Fertilizer: Nitrogen lbs/M/mo Mowing Height: a. 1/2 - 1 in lawns b. 1/4 in WOS

20 CANADA BLUEGRASS Poa compressa
Use: 1. Soil conservation Characteristics: 1. weak rhizomes 2. open, stemmy, elevated crown 3. bluegreen 4. cold tolerant, low fertility 5. prefers droughty, acid soils

21 Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) Use: fairway, greens Characteristics:
1. weak stolons 2. light green 3. shallow roots 4. heavy seed producer Spring> Fall> Summer 5. Heat, drought tolerance: poor

22 6. Prefer: a. cool, moist, shade b. close mow c. overwater d. does well on compacted soils Cultivars: none, yet Types: 1. annual-seed Poa annua var. annua 2. perennial Poa annua var. reptans

23 Management: 1. Seed rate: none 2. Mowing height: 3/ in. 3. Irrigation: frequent, syringe 4. Pesticide: fungicides needed 5. Control methods: vertical mow - reduce seed, fertility, PGR, preemergent herbicides, core aerate, irrigation, stress

24 Vegetative Characteristics: 1. Annual a. rolled
RYEGRASS Vegetative Characteristics: 1. Annual a. rolled b. bunch c. coarse 2. Perennial a. folded b. bunch type c. fine - medium texture

25 PERENNIAL RYEGRASS Lolium perenne
Use: lawns, fairways, athletic fields 1. Origin: Europe 2. Growth habit: bunch type 3. Establishment rate: rapid ger/estb. 4. Wear: good 5. Recovery Rate: poor

26 6. Thatch level: low 7. Winter kill: fair Cultivars: 1. Common types - examples: a. Norlea b. Linn

27 2. Improved: a. Texture: finer b. Color: darker c. Density: higher d. Cut: 1/ /2 in. e. Growth habit: low f. Pest resistance: good g. Examples: Manhattan 4, Palmer 3, Pizzazz, Applaud

28 Management: 1. Seed rate: 5(lawns) - 35 lbs (WOS) 2. Mowing Height: Lawns in. Greens - 1/4 in. 3. Fertilization: 3-6 lbs/1000

29 ANNUAL RYEGRASS Lolium multiflorum
Use: 1. soil stabilization 2. temporary cover 3. "cheap" seed 4. quick cover

30 Characteristics: 1. Germination and establishment: very fast 2. Growth: rapid 3. Growth habit: bunch type 4. Color: light green 5. Texture: coarse blade 6. Tolerance: poor cold, heat tolerance

31 Cultivars: none Seed Rate: lb/1000 ft2 Management: 1. Seeding Rate: 5 lbs/M 2. Fertilizer Schedule: 3 lbs N/M/yr 3. Mowing Regime: 2 1/2 in

32 TALL FESCUE Festuca arundinacea
Characteristics: 1.rolled vernation 2.rough leaf blade, hairs on auricle 3.coarse textured 4.bunch type Varieties: Rembrandt, Jaguar, Olympic, Tarheel, Wolfpack, Bonsai, Rebel,

33 Use: lawns, athletic, soil stabilization, roadsides
Adaptability: 1. Heat/drought: excellent 2. Wear: good 3. Soils: good in wide pH (4-8) 4. Diseases: low but brown patch 5. Shade tolerance: good -best in NC 6. Establishment: good, faster than bluegrass but slower than rye

34 Tall fescue

35 Tall fescue

36 FINE LEAF FESCUES (Festuca spp.)
Characteristics: 1. folded Species: 1. Creeping Red Fescue (F. rubra ssp. rubra) - rhizomes - examples: Pennlawn, Ruby Dawson

37 Fine fescue

38 2. Chewings fescue (F. rubra ssp. commutata) a. bunch type
b. examples: Jamestown, Highlight c. Denser d. Heat/cold tolerance: less than CRF 3. Hard fescue (F. longifolia) b. examples: Biljart, Scaldis, Reliant c. Heat/drought tolerance: excellent

39 4. Sheep Fescue (F. ovina) a. bunch type b. Use: soil stabilization, ornamental (blue fescue) Use: 1. Mixed with Ky bluegrass shade, drought, infertile soils 2. low maintenance

40 Adaptability: 1. Drought/shade/infertile soil tolerance: Excellent 2. Heat tolerance: very poor 3. Wet soil tolerance: very poor 4. Recovery rate: poor to fair 5. Disease tolerance: poor

41 Managment: 1. Seed rate: lb/1000 ft2 2. Fertilization: lb/1000/yr 3. Mowing height: 1-1/ /2 in.

42 BENTGRASS (Agrostis) 1. Creeping (A. palustris) a. Stolons: strong
b. Ligule: prominant, membranous 2. Colonial (A. tenuis) a. Stolons: weak b. Rhizomes: weak c. Ligule: blunt, short

43 3. Velvet (A. canina) a. Stolons: weak b. Ligule: pointed Vegetative Characteristics: 1. rolled vernation 2. membranous ligule 3. fine texture 4. leaves - flat, sabre-tipped, fine textured

44 CREEPING BENTGRASS Use: greens, tees, fairways, tennis, bowling
Characteristics: 1. highest quality 2. high maintenance lb N/yr a. thatchy, grainy b. disease susceptible c. shallow root, water often d. mow close, frequent, 1/8 - 1/2”

45 3. Wear: poor 4. Recovery: good 5. Compaction: poor 6. prefer cool, moist regions 7. tolerate close mow - 1/4 in. 8. high density 9. Heat tolerance: fair 10. Soil pH: 11. Spring greenup: slow 12. Winter color retention: poor

46 Creeping bentgrass stolons

47 1. Vegetative: stolonize a. Toronto (C-15) b. Cohansey (C-7)
Cultivars: 1. Vegetative: stolonize a. Toronto (C-15) b. Cohansey (C-7) c. Washington (C-50) 2. Seeded a. Penncross* b. Seaside c. Providence d. Pennlinks e. Cato, Crenshaw, L93, A4, G2....

48 Management: 1. Seed: lb/1000 ft2 2. Mowing height: 1/8- 3/16 in. for greens - 1/2 - 3/4 in. for fairways 3. Grain control: comb/brush, mow 2X 4. Fertilizer: 1/2 - 1 lb/1000ft2/month 5. Thatch: topdress 6. Syringe to cool surface

Creeping bentgrass and bermudagrass are cool season (C3) and warm season (C4) grasses respectively. This is due to anatomical and physiological differences between the species. In general, C4 plants are more photosynthetically efficient than C3 plants. This is due to their ability to fix CO2 at lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations, maintain higher fixation rates at higher light intensities, and the absence of photorespiration.

50 Photorespiration, associated with C3 plants, increases with temperature and it is for this reason that bentgrass should not be heavily fertilized in the summer. Promotion of growth in high temperatures results in weak plants as a result of a depletion of food reserves. Root loss (50 %) can be expected to occur as soil temperatures approach the mid-seventies. Optimum root growth of C3 grasses occurs at lower temperatures compared to shoot growth.

51 Potential for greater root growth in the fall and especially the following spring along with reduced rates of photorespiration is the rationale behind late fall fertilization C4 grasses perform best in the summer (80-95oF) and are more subject to winter injury from cold temperatures. Discoloration and the initiation of dormancy occurs when temperatures approach 50oF. Good root growth is experienced in the late spring, summer and early fall.

52 Bermudagrass Rapid increases in temperature in the spring can result in rapid spring green up and a loss of the root system simultaneously. This is due to the inability of the plant to meet the needs of both the shoot and root system. The shoot system takes priority over the root system. Cultural practices that promote the shoot system should be avoided, e.g., the application of heavy rates of nitrogen or the use of root inhibiting herbicides that may delay the recovery process.

53 Bentgrass Bermudagrass
Grass type C C4 Optimum shoot growth oF oF Optimum root growth oF oF 50% root loss oF

Use: tees, fairways, lawns. Replaced by Kentucky bluegrass and P. rye. Characteristics: 1. Northeast, Northwest: cool/moist 2. Maintenance: moderate 3. Rhizomes, stolons: present, weak 4. Thatch: medium 5. tolerate close mowing - 1/2 - 3/4" 6. high density

55 Adaptability: 1. Heat, drought: poor 2. Disease: medium, high 3. Sandy soils 4. Wear: poor 5. Recovery: fair to good 6. Compaction: poor 7. Soil pH: 8. Shade: fair

56 Cultivars: 1. Exeter - good cold 2. Astoria 3. Highland - good drought

57 TURF COMMUNITIES Definitions: Mixture: Two or more species
Blend: Two or more cultivars or a single species Advantages: 1. Improve performance over a wide range of conditions -This is especially important for apomictic grasses

58 What should be considered when blending or mixing turfgrasses?
1. Compatibility in: Leaf texture, growth habit, color, shoot density 2. Resistance to different pests 3. Differ in environmental tolerance

59 Major Blends and Mixtures:
Cool Season Grasses: 1. Kentucky bluegrass/fine fescue 2. Kentucky bluegrass/perennial ryegrass 3. Kentucky bluegrass/tall fescue 4. Bentgrass/red fescue

60 Major blends and mixtures:
For Warm Season Grasses: 1. Perennial ryegrass (winter overseeding) 2. Perennial ryegrass/rough bluegrass (WOS) 3. Tall fescue/bermudagrass


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