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Anatomy & Physiology Bones.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Physiology Bones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Physiology Bones

2 Skeleton System Infant Skeleton about 300 bones Adult about 206 bones
When humans are born they have around 3oo bones. As the infant grows, some bones fuse together over time to form a single bone. As a result, adults have only 206 bones.

3 The Skeletal System Supports Protects
Supports, so you can stand and do activities- Imagine if God didn’t create us with bones. We would be like puppets. Pretend you have a puppet. Just sitting there on the table. It’s like a blob, until you put the bone structured support into it. See your hand, is the foundation that holds the puppet, just like your body. Your bones are the structure that holds everything together. Your skull- it protects your brain. Around your brain is fluid. This fluid helps to protect your brain. (can do egg experiment) Your ribs play a special part too. They protect your important organs, like your heart, & lungs. If you didn’t have the protection of the bones, you could easily damage them. God designed us perfectly.

4 Bones make (produce) blood
Bone marrow produces blood cells- Blood cells must be reproduced The production of blood is a vital part of your body. Blood cells don’t last that long in our body’s, God designed our bodies so that they would continually make new blood cells.

5 What do you mean….are you saying they store stuff?
Bones Important for storage: Stores minerals that are important for your entire body to function, such as: Phosphorus Calcium Potassium, magnesium, zinc and more. What do you mean….are you saying they store stuff? The bones of a skeleton store minerals such as phospherous, calcium, potassium, magnesium, silica, iron, zinc, selenium, boron, sulfur and chromium. (This is important so that you don’t develop osteoporosis) This is a disease that makes your bones weak. Did you know that while you are young, it’s your job to keep up with your calcium intake? Where do you think you get calcium from? Dairy products, spinach and some other veggies, soy & some nuts Check out what each of the minerals do, and why they are important, if you want to dig deeper.

6 What else will help to make bones strong?
Vitamin D Exercise Where do you get vitamin D, well the main thing is plenty of sunlight , fish , soy and milk. Lack of Vit. D can cause Rickets- this happens in areas where the children don’t get enough food. By not getting the right amount of vita D, the bones don’t form properly. Exercise is vital at every age for healthy bones, exercise is important for treating and preventing osteoporosis. Not only does exercise improve your bone health, it also increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance.

7 Bone Structure Outside: periosteum
The outer surface of bone is called the periosteum (say: pare-ee-os-tee-um). It's a thin, dense membrane that contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the bone.

8 Compact bone & Spongy Bone
The next layer is made up of compact bone. This part is smooth and very hard. It's the part you can see when you look at a skeleton. Spongy bone is not exactly spongy. Towards the center of the bone, the bone gets more hollow. This is why it is called spongy. This part of the bone is actually very strong and resilient (able to bounce back) God designed our bones to withstand a certain amount of pressure.

9 Spongy Bone Spongy bone helps your body to bounce back to help prevent breaks

10 Bone Marrow Human Bone Marrow Beef Bone Marrow
the bone marrow (say: mair-oh). Bone marrow is sort of like a thick jelly, and its job is to make blood cells. Bone marrow makes millions of blood cells every second to replace old, worn-out blood cells, which the body destroys. RBC live about 120 days. There are two types of marrow: red and yellow. Red marrow makes blood cells. Yellow marrow is mainly a fat store, but it can turn into red marrow if the body needs extra blood cells

11 Why do infants have more bones then adults anyway
Why do infants have more bones then adults anyway? Osteoblast- Osteo=Bone, blast=immature Osteoclast osteo=bone, clast= to break There are important cells in your bones, which do a lot of work. One cell is called Osteoblast: A cell that makes bone and becomes mineralized. During the growth phase of our life, osteoblasts add to the spongy bone Osteoclast- breaks away (eats away) the spongy layer on the inside of the bone. God designed the osteoblasts and osteoclasts to work in harmony. While you are growing bones grow longer and wider

12 Still Growing- Babies are born with more cartilage
A growth plate is an area of growing tissue located near the end of the long bones of the body. These bones include the fingers, forearm, and lower leg bones (tibia and fibula). When you are born, the growth plates are actually cartilage, which is a soft, rubbery material. As you grow, the cartilage of the growth plates slowly hardens into regular bone. Can you imagine what we would look like if God didn’t design us with growth plates, imagine being an adult with infant arm and legs Boys typically reach skeletal maturity between 16 and 17 years old, and girls typically reach skeletal maturity between 14 and 15 years old.

13 Bones are placed into two groups
The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum or breastbone The bones of the skeleton can be placed into two groups. The first group is called the axial skeleton, the bones that form our center. The bones of the axial skeleton support and protect the organs of the head, neck and trunk, including the skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebrae. .

14 Appendicular skeleton
The Upper Extremities The Lower Extremities The Shoulder Girdle The Pelvic Girdle The appendicular skeleton is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton. appendicular skeleton. It is made up of all the bones related to our arms and legs (or appendages), including the bones of the arms, hands, legs, feet, shoulder, and hip. Pelvic girdle- God designed these to bear a lot of weight. The pelvic girdle connects your vertebrae, hips or coxae, tailbone and sacrum.

15 Your vertebrae column or spinal Column – is divided up into 5 parts-
Your Cervical (Neck) has 7—Your Thoracic which has 12-Lumbar -5 lumbar-Sacrum- Coccyx (cocks-its)- Your spinal column is an important part of your body- this is where your nervous system is located. Your nervous systems allows you to feel, move, talk- it attaches to your brain. The spinal column has many ligaments, which keep your column together. Vertebra Column

16 Rib Bits Called Thoracic Cage- Protects vital organs
The rib cage flexes when we breathe The rib cage, (otherwise known as the thoracic cage), protects our vital organs within the thorax - the chest. It consists of the thoracic vertebrae, the ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum, or breastbone. We have 12 pairs of ribs, and there are two types. The top seven pairs are the true ribs and attach ‘directly’ to the sternum. The bottom 5 pairs are called false ribs. These ribs do not attach ‘directly’ to the sternum. The pairs of ribs numbered 8 to 10 are attached to the sternum by a common cartilage (of rib number 7). Ribs 11 and 12 are called floating ribs, as they do not attach to the sternum at all; they just come out from the spinal cord at the back of the body but never form a cage by closing in and joining onto the sternum at the front. The costal cartilage that is in our rib cage flexes as we breathe, and functions to keep our breathing system as elastic as possible. If this cartilage was to be replaced by bone, it would be very difficult for out ribs to move to provide for our breathing, because bones are a rigid material, and don’t give much when a pressure is applied.

17 The skull is the bony framework of the head
The skull is the bony framework of the head. It is comprised of the eight cranial and fourteen facial bones Skull

18 Smallest bones in the body
Malleus- called the hammer Incus- called the anvil Stapes- called the stirrup Ear

19 Sizes and Shapes Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones
Sesamoid Bones Long Bones Long bones are some of the longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus and Tibia but are also some of the smallest including the Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges. Short Bones Short bones are defined as being approximately as wide as they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability with little movement. Examples of short bones are the ankles and wrists. Flat Bones Flat bones are as they sound, strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. The classic example of a flat bone is the Scapula (shoulder blade). The Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), Pelvis and Ribs are also classified as flat bones. In adults, the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones. Irregular Bones These are bones which do not fall into any other category, due to their non-uniform shape. Good examples of these are the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw). Sesamoid Bones Sesamoid bones are usually short or irregular bones, imbedded in a tendon. The most obvious example of this is the Patella (knee cap) which sits within the Patella or Quadriceps tendon.

20 Arm & Hands The arm, or brachium, is technically only the region between the shoulder and elbow. It consists of a single long bone called the humerus. The humerus is the longest bone in the upper extremity Short bone in wrist- Carpal Metacarples- Hand bones Your fingers are called - Phalanges

21 Legs & Feet The Femur is the longest bone in the body.
You calcaneus- Cal cay nee us- is your heel bone Your toes are called phalanges, just like your fingers.

22 Male and Female Skeletons are a bit different
Males- slightly thicker, longer legs and arms Females- wider pelvis and larger space, so they can deliver children Differences between males and females: Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born.

23 Joints 6 kinds of joints in your body
There is special fluid in the joints called synovial Hinge Elbow/Knee Shi-no-vee-ul- This fluid prevents the joints from rubbing together. Many times elderly people get arthritis, this is when the fluid is thin and weak, and causes them to rub together. As I was studying I found that there are over 30 joints in the body. We are just going to cover a few. Ist one- Hinge allows for flexing and extending

24 Pivot Joint Pivot allows Rotation of one bone around another – Your neck

25 Ball and socket joint Shoulder/Hip
Ball and socket allow a wide range of motion

26 Saddle Joints Saddle joints are found in the thumb it allows for the thumb to cross over to the palm of the hand

27 Condyloid Con-de-loid- - This joint allows you to move up and down- As in your wrist, you can’t move it sideways

28 Quick Trivia What mineral is important for bone growth and protects from osteoporosis?

29 Calcium

30 Infants have less bones then adults? True or False

31 False, they have more (Cartilage that turns into bone)

32 What are the things that are produced in the bone marrow?

33 Red Blood Cells and Yellow bone marrow, which stores the fats.

34 What are the 4 functions of the bones?

35 Supports Protects Produces Stores
Supports body Protects organs Produces blood Stores nutrients

36 Periosteum (pare-ee-os-tee-um). Is located on what part of the bone?

37 The outside of the bone Which contain nerves and blood vessels, which nourish the bones

38 The ______ ____, protects the bone and helps it to bounce back.

39 Spongy Bone How’d you do?

40 Osteo means?

41 Bone

42 A -----------------is an area of growing tissue located near the end of the long bones of the body

43 growth plate

44 When you are born, the growth plates are actually --------------,which is a soft, rubbery material.

45 cartilage

46 The bones of the _______ ______support and protect the organs of the head, neck and trunk, including the skull, sternum, ribs, and vertebrae.

47 axial skeleton

48 The _______ ________is composed of bones that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton.

49 appendicular skeleton



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