2 Plasma Liquid part of blood. Colloid: liquid containing suspended substances that don’t settle out of solution91% water. Remainder proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, regulatory substancesProteins:Albumins: viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormonesGlobulins: transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, antibodies, and complementFibrinogen: blood clotting
3 Plasma, cont.Ions: involved in osmosis, membrane potentials, and acid-base balanceNutrients: glucose, amino acids, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, vitaminsWaste Products:Urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia salts. Breakdown products of protein metabolismBilirubin. Breakdown product of RBCsLactic acid. End product of anaerobic respirationGases: oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert nitrogenRegulatory substances: hormones, enzymes
4 Formed ElementsRed blood cells (erythrocytes). Biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide.White blood cells (leukocytes)Granulocytes: cytoplasm contains large granules; have multi-lobed nuclei. Three distinctive types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophilsAgranulocytes: cytoplasm contains small granules and nuclei that are not lobed. Two distinctive types: lymphocytes and monocytesPlatelets (thrombocytes). Cell fragment. Form platelet plugs, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting.
9 Hemoglobin Composition Four globin molecules (polypeptide chains): Transport carbon dioxide (carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide. NO brought from lungs to tissues, induces smooth muscles to relax, lowering BP.Four heme molecules, each containing one iron atom: transport oxygenIron required for oxygen transport. Iron absorbed in upper small intestine; absorption increased by stomach acid and vitamin C. Iron lost in urine, feces, menstrual fluid.
10 Erythropoiesis RBCs last 120 days in circulation (enucleated) Production of red blood cellsStem cells → proerythroblasts → early erythroblasts → intermediate erythroblasts → late erythroblasts → reticulocytesErythropoietin: hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels.
12 White Blood CellsProtect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debrisMovementsAmeboid: pseudopodsDiapedesis: cells become thin, elongate and move either between or through endothelial cells of capillariesChemotaxis: attraction to and movement toward foreign materials or damaged cells. Accumulation of dead white cells and bacteria is pus.
13 Neutrophils: after leaving bone marrow, stay in circulation hours then move into other tissues. Become motile, phagocytize bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes and other foreign matter. Secrete lysozyme. Last 1-2 days. Account for 60-70% of the WBC.Eosinophils. Leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response. Prevalent in allergic reactions. Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine. Release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms, flukes, pinworms, and hookworms. Account for 2-4% of the WBC.
14 Basophils: least common Basophils: least common. Leave circulation and migrate through tissues, play a role in both inflammatory response and allergic reactions. Produce histamine and heparin. Account for less than 1% of the WBC.Lymphocytes: produced in red bone marrow but then migrate to lymphatic tissues and proliferate. Responsible for antibody production. Studied extensively with the immune system. Account for 20-25% of the WBC.Monocytes: remain in circulation for 3 days, leave circulation and become macrophages. Phagocytic cells. Can break down antigens and present them to lymphocytes for recognition. Account for 3-8% of the WBC.
15 PlateletsCell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in red bone marrowImportant in preventing blood lossPlatelet plugsPromoting formation and contraction of clots
16 Hemostasis Arrest of bleeding Events preventing excessive blood loss Vascular spasm: Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels. Can occlude small vessels. Caused by thromboxanes from platelets and endothelin from damaged endothelial cells.Platelet plug formationCoagulation or blood clotting
17 Platelet Plug Formation Platelet adhesion. Occurs when von Willebrand factor connects collagen and platelets.Platelet release reaction. The release of ADP, thromboxanes, and other chemicals that activate other platelets. They in turn undergo the release reaction: cascade effect.Platelet aggregation. Activated platelets express surface receptors that bind fibrinogen (protein found in plasma). Fibrinogen forms a bridge between platelets: platelet plug.Expression of coagulation factor V and phospholipids. Important for coagulation
18 Coagulation Stages Activation of prothrombinase Conversion of prothrombin to thrombinConversion of fibrinogen to fibrinCoagulation factors.Proteins found in plasma.Circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured.Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that begin activation of the factors.PathwaysExtrinsicIntrinsicResult: blood clot. A network of threadlike fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluidCoagulation
19 Blood GroupingTransfusion: transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to anotherInfusion: introduction of fluid other than bloodDetermined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCsAntibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCsGroups: ABO and Rh
22 TransfusionType A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodiesSuggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A and B antigens on bacteria and foodDonor: gives blood. Recipient: receives bloodType O as “universal donor”. Can actually cause transfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma
23 Rh Blood Group First studied in rhesus monkeys Types Rh positive: Have these antigens present on surface of RBCsRh negative: Do not have these antigens presentHemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)Rh positive fetus, Rh negative mother.Late in pregnancy, Rh antigens of fetus cross placenta (through a tear in placenta or during delivery); mother creates antiRh antibodies (primary response)Second Rh positive pregnancy might initiate secondary response and HDN (potentially fatal to fetus since antibodies to its RBCs would cross the placenta from the mother to the fetus, destroying fetal RBCs).Injection of RhoGAM. Contains antibodies against Rh antigens. Antibodies attach to any fetal RBCs and they are destroyed.
25 Diagnostic Blood Tests Type and Crossmatch: determination of ABO and Rh blood types. Red cells tested against antibodiesComplete Blood CountRed Blood Count: number of RBCs/ microliter of bloodHemoglobin Measurement: grams of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood. For a male, 14-18, female g/100 mLHematocrit Measurement: percent of blood that is RBCsWhite Blood Cell Count: 5,000-10,000 /microliter of blood
27 Differential White Blood Count: determines percentage of each of the five types of WBC Neutrophils: 60-70%Lymphocytes: 20-30%Monocytes: 2-8%Eosinophils: 1-4%Basophils: 0.5-1%ClottingPlatelet Count: 250, ,000/microliterProthrombin Time Measurement: measures how long it takes for blood to start clotting seconds. To test, thromboplastin is added to whole plasmaBlood Chemistry: composition of materials dissolved or suspended in the plasma. Used to assess functioning of many body systems