Presentation on theme: "LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Advanced debating."— Presentation transcript:
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Advanced debating
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Summations Extensions Style Rebuttal Shifting burdens of proof
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Lets take a more in depth look at the summation. There are three ways you can look at a debate: -Chronologically -Adversarially -Holistically The summation speakers job is to look at the debate through a particularly biased lens and to then present the image they form to the judging panel in a way that makes it believable. Since there are only three ways you can look at the debate there are only three ways you can summate a debate.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Chronologically This form of summation takes each speaker from the opposing team one by one and attacks their arguments, using the arguments presented by the summation speakers team as ammunition. When using this style you DO NOT have to attack every argument the opposition presented only those arguments which are convincing. (Or as we will see later those arguments which have provided your team with a burden of proof) This form of summation is the easiest to carry out but also one of the most situational..
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Adversarially This form of summation presents the two sides of the debate as separate entities and then explains why the side the summation speaker is on beats the side they are against. When using this form of summation it is important to take enough time to attack the arguments the opposing team has provided as well as reinforcing the arguments presented by your team. You cant win a debate unless you explain why your side wins, it is not satisfactory to just explain what both sides said. This form of summation is also very easy to do and will allow a lot of clarification especially when your first half team has made a confusing or weak case.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Holistically This form of summation is a lot more advanced than the other two, it requires you to find a set of themes or contentions that have been the most controversial (The ones with the biggest burdens of proof). This form of summation is usually framed in the form of three questions which the summation speaker then answers in a way which suggests that their side presents the most convincing case. This form of summation allows you to manipulate the way the judges view the debate, everything is of your construction including the questions that signpost your points of contention.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds A summation speaker has two tasks: Reconstruction and Deconstruction. As a summation speaker you can get a final say in the debate, if you use this opportunity correctly you can both repair holes in your sides case and punch some in your oppositions case without them being able to respond to you. -Claiming points from first half through POIs. -They gave you X my partner gave you Y. -Using the opportunity to take a step back from the debate and systematically deconstruct their case.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Extensions are sometimes considered difficult, people assume that speaking third in the debate removes a lot of options from you. Whilst thats no doubt true it provides you with far more. There are four options for extension speakers: -Use points that have not been covered. (Weak) -Alternative perspectives. (Strong) -Logical extremes. -Defence of first half points in a way that owns them.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Style in and of itself isnt going to win you debates but it does make you more convincing. -Humour -Tone dependant on the content of your speech -Confidence when responding to POIs -Chamber debating
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds Rebuttal is one of the most important aspects of debating, whether it happens at the start of your speech or during your speech it is important to do some. There are three ways to construct it: -As a substantive point. -As a logical attack at the start of your speech. -As a woven in piece of analytical content within substantive points.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds A burden of proof is a question that demands an answer for the debate to progress. When debates start both sides have a simple burden of proof why is X the right course of action but more importantly in debating speakers can force burdens of proof onto one another. If I make a point explaining the reasons people have an autonomous right to do something I implicitly ask my opponents to tell me why I do not. Moreover once they present me with a valid argument as to why I do not they are giving me a request for information, not as to why I do have an autonomous right, but why their argument is invalid.
LANCASTER UNIVERSITY DEBATING SOCIETY luds By looking at debates in this way you can boil them down to something resembling a group of people passing a ball back and forth. This is useful when you are deciding which of your arguments is more important than the others, you should choose arguments that respond to burdens you have seen given to your side (not necessarily just your team). Moreover this helps hugely in constructing summation speeches. You want to select points that directly engage with burdens of proof you have been provided with in the debate, if you can show that your side has fulfilled these you will win.