WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS ARGUMENT? Watch this short clip and discuss http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTg2ExwioPM
They don’t set time to listen to each other’s ideas They have not thought about what they are going to say and stray off topic They talk over the top of each other and nobody is heard. They haven’t planned out what they are going to say They don’t make any interesting arguments.
This means, the characters are not really having a debate. A debate is an organised argument on a topic, with three speakers speaking on the affirmative, and three on the negative. An adjudicator then decides who wins.
DEBATING IS LIKE SPORT Teams should pack a punch with their interesting ideas and quick thinking. They should use good team work to impress the audience and beat their opponents.
SPEAKING ROLES - AFFIRMATIVE Each speaker has different tasks. First speaker – Defines the topic introduces the other speakers, makes two or three main points that support argument using reasons and evidence, summarises own case. Eg – Today I am going to speak to you about why dogs are better than cats. My team (Miss Jones, Miss Johnson and I) is going to convince you that dogs make better companions. First, I am going to talk to you briefly about the history of dogs in society and how they earned the label of man’s best friend. Then Miss Jones will discuss the roles of dogs as helpers in society for people with disabilities. Finally, Miss Johnson will discuss the role of dogs in border control and the emergency services. I believe that dogs make better companions because they are so loyal. An example of this… etc.
REBUTTAL All speakers except for the first speakers have a chance for rebuttal. Rebuttal is when you spend time addressing the arguments that the other team has brought up. It’s a chance to pick on their arguments and explain why their ideas don’t work. For example…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW8 7GRmunMYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW8 7GRmunMY
Second speaker– Introduction, Rebuttal Three main ideas Summary For example – I am now going to talk to you about the history of the relationship between dogs and man. First, I would like to rebut some ideas presented by the first speaker of the negative team. She claimed that cats are cuter than dogs but (holds up picture of an ugly cat) I challenge you to tell me why this (holds up picture of a cute puppy) is more loveable than this.
Third Speaker Introduction, rebuttal and summary of the team’s argument. Make sure you end with a strong statement. Eg – My team has presented a strong case and I am sure we have convinced you, ladies and gentleman, that a dog’s loyalty and usefulness are far superior to that of its feline friends.
SPEAKING ROLES - NEGATIVE Each speaker has different tasks. First speaker – Agrees or amends the affirmative’s definition of the topic, introduces the other speakers, develops argument using reasons and evidence, summarises own case. Second speaker– Introduction, Rebuttal (a chance to respond to what the other team has said), argument, reasons and evidence and summary Third speaker – Introduction, rebuttal, summary of team’s argument.
STEP 1 - PREPARATION Think about your topic. Brainstorm your ideas. Ask your friends and family members for their thoughts on the topic – they may say something you haven’t thought of. Research the topic. You may be able to include some statistics or facts to back up what you are saying. Try to think of some appropriate jokes or interesting stories to do with your topic so that you can grab people’s attention. If your argument is well researched, you will be much more likely to win… For example - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_yYDzLUH1NE
2. WRITING You might use illustrations, props or analogies (stories )to make your ideas more clear. Remember to back up your ideas with evidence such as facts and statistics. Keep note cards of the main ideas that you want to say. Try not to write down everything you say, but use them to jog your memory. You should still be able to use eye contact.
STEP 3 - PRACTISE You will need to practise your debate before you have an audience. Time yourself – if you are too short you should expand on your ideas. If you are too long you should eliminate your weaker arguments. Remember to practise your opening and closing statements. Your opening has to be snappy and grab your audience’s attention. Your closing sentence should also be strong and you should say something that will stick in the audience’s minds. Having a strong opening and closing statement will give you confidence.
STEP 4 - PRESENTATION Remember to use eye contact to involve your audience. Speak clearly and loudly enough for people to comfortably hear you. Speak slowly (it is easy to gabble when you are nervous!) Use good body language – try not to fidget and you will appear more confident. Have fun – if you are enjoying yourself you will look more relaxed and give a better debate.