Presentation on theme: "Word Identification Vacca, J. , Vacca, R. , Gove, M. , Burkey, L"— Presentation transcript:
1 Word Identification Vacca, J. , Vacca, R. , Gove, M. , Burkey, L Word Identification Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning to Read, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.By Dawn Cardenas
2 In this presentation, you will discover: Foniks Instrukshun:Between the LinesIn this presentation, you will discover:Phases of word identification.Guidelines and strategies for teaching phonics.Strategies for teaching words in context.Strategies for teaching rapid recognition of words.Guidelines for balancing word identification instruction.Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
3 Opening Questions:What combination of strategies, or cueing systems, do children need to use for immediate word recognition?How can contemporary phonics guidelines inform your instruction?How can word identification be taught as a part of a balanced literacy program?
4 Key Terms Analogy-based instruction Onset Analytic phonics Phonograms Cross-checkingDecodable textEmbedded phonics instructionHigh-frequency wordsKey wordsLinguistic instructionOnsetPhonogramsRimeSelf-monitoringSpelling-based instructionSynthetic phonicsWord banksWord wallsVacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
5 Vacca, J. , Vacca, R. , Gove, M. , Burkey, L. Lenhart, L. , C Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
6 in Children’s Ability to Read Words Developmental Phasesin Children’s Ability to Read WordsPrealphabetic phase(Remembering a distinctive, purely visual cue) yellowExample: tall postsPartial alphabetic phase KitteN(Remembering limited matches between salient letter sounds)Example: matches between K and N only k it nFull alphabetic phase C L O CK(Remembering matches between all letters and sounds)Example: 4 letter units matched to 4 sound units k l o kConsolidated alphabetic phase CR ATE(Remembering matches between multiletter units kr atand symbolic units)Example: matching onset and rime unitsVacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
7 A Primer on the Content and Language of Phonics Terms of PhonicsDefinitions of TermsExamples of TermsConsonantsAll the sounds represented by letters of the alphabet except a, e, i, o, and u.Hard c: cat, coaster, catatonic(c sounds like /k/)Soft c: city, receive, cite(c sounds like /s/)Consonant BlendsTwo or three consonants grouped together, but each consonant retains its original sound.l blends: bl cl fl gl pl slr blends: br cr dr fr gr pr trs blends: sc sk sm sn sp st sw3-letter blends: scr spr strConsonant DigraphsTwo or more consonants are combined to produce a new sound.ch in chin ph in phonesh in shell gh in ghostth in think nk in tankwh in whistle -ng in tangPhonogramsLetter patterns that help to form word families or rhyming words.ad in bad, dad, fad, sadat in cat, hat, mat, satack in back, hack, jack, packVacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
8 Continued A Primer on the Content and Language of Phonics Terms of PhonicsDefinitions of TermsExamples of TermsVowelsAll the sounds represented by letters a, e, i, o, and u.Short Sounds Long Sounds/a/ in Pat /a/ in lake/e/ in bed /e/ in be/i/ in pit /i/ in ice/o/ in hot /o/ in go/u/ in hug /u/ in useVowel DigraphsTwo vowels that are adjacent to one another. The first vowel is usually long; the second vowel is silent.oa in boat ay in bayee in beet oo in lookea in beat ew in flewai in bait ea in readVowel DiphthongsSounds that consist of a blend of two separate vowel sounds./oi/ in oil /aw/ in saw/oy/ in toy /ou/ in out/au/ in taught /ow/ in howConsonant-Influenced VowelsThe letter a has a special sound when followed by an l.R-controlled vowels occur when any vowel letter is followed by an r.l in Albert or tallowr in star, her, fir, for, and purr
9 Continued A Primer on the Content and Language of Phonics Syllable PatternsTypes of Syllable PatternsExamples of Syllable PatternsLong VowelsCVCveCVVCbelikerotepaidboatShort VowelsVC or CVCithotR-controlledVrCVrartcar, herDigraph/DiphthongVariationsVVsaw, bookboil, outVacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
10 Traditional Approaches to Phonics Analytic Phonics InstructionSynthetic Phonics InstructionLinguistic Phonics Instruction
11 Contemporary Approaches to Phonics Analogy Based InstructionSpelling Based InstructionEmbedded Based Instruction
12 Guidelines for Contemporary Phonics Instruction Needs to build on foundation of phonemic awarenessMust be integrated into a total reading programShould focus on reading print rather than learning rulesNeeds to include teaching of onsets and rimesNeeds to include spelling based strategies.
13 Strategies Consonant Based Strategies Analogy Based Strategies Favorites FoodsFlip BooksDigraph Tongue TwistersAnalogy Based StrategiesRimes and Nursery RhymesHink Pinks, Hinky PinkiesWord BuildingSpelling Based StrategiesWord BanksWord WallsHave-A-Go
14 Word-Building Strategy The word-building strategy begins with the identification of the specificrime pattern to be studied. If the rime ine was the focus, it would bepresented in the following manner.1. Building words by adding the onset.Write ine on large chart paper or on the overhead. Ask students to supply different consonants to create the words mine, nine, line, and dine. As each word is written, carefully enunciate the beginning consonant and the rime and then the whole word. For example, mine would be m-, -ine, mine. Repeat the procedure for each new word formed. Attention may then be paid to the ine rime. Discussion may clarify the relationship between the long i and silent e.2. Building words by adding the rime.To ensure that students have a clear understanding of the onset and rime, present the onset and have the students supply the rime. Write m and have the children tell what would be added to create the word mine. After adding the ine, say the word in parts, m-, -ine, and then as a whole. Point to each letter pattern as it is said.3. Selecting a model word.Choose a common word that easily illustrates the specific letter pattern. The ine rime can be shown with a picture of the number 9. Illustrations can be added to the children’s personal dictionaries or anyplace else that can be easily referenced.Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
15 Word-Building Strategy Guided practice.Provide many opportunities for the students to practice using the letter pattern. Possibilities include sharing big books with the pattern, using magnetic letters on cookie sheets, writing words on mini-chalkboards, tumbling letter blocks to form words, or making flip books with the rime pattern.Application.Provide opportunities for students to read stories, poems, chants, and rhymes with the specific letter pattern. It may be helpful to keep a list of appropriate titles or copies of poems and rhymes in a binder or folder marked with rimes and letter patterns.Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
16 How do we use meaning and letter-sound information to identify words? Strategies for teaching contextCloze with or without choice givenGuessing GamesReader-selected miscue strategyCross Checking and Self-Monitoring Strategies
17 Monitoring an Unknown Word What do you do when you come to a word you don’t know?If you can’t figure it out,Don’t let the word bug you.Maybe you can understandthe selection without it.1. Try to sound it out. If you can’t . . .2. Say “blank” and skip it.3. Read at least to the end of the sentence.4. Go back and look at the word and see ifyou can think of a word that makes senseand has these letters.Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning toRead, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
18 What are some strategies for teaching rapid recognition of words? Strategies for Teaching High Frequency or Function WordsLanguage Experience StrategyWord WallsEnvironmental PrintTeaching Key WordsClassifying WordsRelating WordsActing out words
19 What are some guidelines for balancing word identification instruction? No one-size-fits-all approachUnlimited experiences with words in authentic textsOn-going, systematic, explicit phonics instruction using meaningful textsEarly development of sight word knowledgeInstruction in use of context clues
20 A SMART GoalUsing a thesaurus and a worksheet, children will read, make inferences, and draw conclusions from riddles with 80% or greater accuracy.
21 Related Web Sites Starfall www.starfall.com. Where children have fun learning to readSummary of the International Reading Association Position Statement on PhonicsThis bulleted summary synthesizes the position statement and provides a link for accessing the entire statement.Multnomah County LibraryThis Web site has links to numerous games and activities about word study for all ages.The Dolch KitThis Web site has links to online alphabet activities including a site for each letter of the alphabet for primary-age children.Four Blocks Literacy Framework: Word Wall Cheersk111.k12.il.us/lafayette/fourblocks/word_wall_chants.htmThis Web site includes ideas and “cheers” for teaching spelling using word walls.
22 ReferencesFlorida Education Standards Commission (nd). Accomplished Competencies for Teachers of the Twenty-First Century. Retrieved July 2, 2007 from Florida Atlantic University, Blackboard Web site:Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L. Lenhart, L., C. McKeon (2006). Reading and Learning to Read, 6th. Edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
23 Answers to Questions & Key Terms Children should be able to automatically identify words by using a combination of phonics, sight recognition, structural analysis and context strategies.Children should be taught to identify words through explicit, systematic phonics instruction including onset and rime recognition as part of a total reading program.By using an integrated approach to literacy including the early development of sight word knowledge and instruction in how to use context clues in a variety of texts.Key Terms:Onset- The initial part of a word (a consonant, consonant blend, or digraph) that precedes the word.Rime- The part of a letter pattern in a word that includes the vowel and any consonants that follow; also called a phonogram or a word family.High frequency words- Words that appear often in printed material.
24 Education Accomplished Practices 1. ASSESSMENT:Assesses individual and group performance to design instruction that meets students' current needs in the cognitive, social, linguistic, cultural, emotional, and physical domains.2. COMMUNICATION:Motivates, encourages, and supports individual and group inquiry.4. CRITICAL THINKING:Analyzes student performance standards to identify associated higher-order thinking skills, and designs learning and performance strategies to evoke these higher-order skills.Poses problems, dilemmas, and questions in lessons that involve value knowledge and that require evaluative thinking.Monitors students’ work and adjusts strategies in response to learners’ needs and successes in creative thinking activities.7. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & LEARNING:Makes appropriate provisions for individual students based upon their learning styles based on needs and developmental levels.8. KNOWLEDGE OF SUBJECT MATTER:Communicates accurate knowledge of subject matter in a comprehensible manner using language and style appropriate to the learner.