Presentation on theme: "Achieving & Sustaining High Performance Building Operations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Achieving & Sustaining High Performance Building Operations December 2007Bank of America Tower, NYC
2 Today’s AgendaChallenges with keeping buildings operating at peak performanceAn alternative approachApplicationsRe-circulated air systems100% OA systemsBenefits summary
3 The Rise of High Performance Buildings 3 trends are driving High Performance BuildingsSoaring energy costsRise of LEED & green buildings constructionIncreased focus on indoor environmental quality (IEQ)Energy costs have soared near $70/barrelOil production peaked in 2003 & demand is upLEED has hit an inflection pointGreen bldgs at > 4% of new bldgs: 212M ft2# of Green buildings is doubling every 2 years5,000+ USGBC members, has doubled annually>20,000 LEED AP’s also doubled in last yearA major focus is on IEQ & energy savingsLEED increases facilities’ bottom lineInfection control is critical in hospitalsParticles increase airborne transmission rates
4 Tension between Ventilation & Energy Energy Savings wants morereturn airVentilation wants more outside air
5 Trends Are Driving Increased Sensing Increased need for controls & sensorsMin. outside air, DCV, economizers, pressurization, humidity control, etc.Controls require many sensorsCO2, CO, T, RH, static pressureIEQ monitoringParticles, TVOCs, formaldehyde, etc.Tighter sensor accuracies and proper application are major issuesInaccurate or mis-applied sensors can actually increase energy costsEx. - normal CO2 errors waste energy
6 Unfulfilled Promise of Hi-Perf & LEED Bldgs High Performance Buildings idea is NOT newDemand Controlled Ventilation (DCV)EconomizersAnnual commissioningFailure has been in implementation (not design)“50% of all buildings are over ventilated” – ASHRAE“70% of economizers don’t work” – New Buildings Institute“Less than 5% of buildings are commissioned” –ASHRAEConventional approaches are not up to the task!
8 Conventional Sensing Approach (Yikes!) Extra hard-wired pointsSensor quality (accuracy)Sensor quantity (cost)Sensor maintenance & calibrationBAS: knowledge vs. data
9 Conventional Sensor Approach Disadvantages High First CostHigh quality sensors are requiredCommercial grade often used but causes problemsHigh cost of installation & integrationHard wired BMS CO2 or RH point: $1,000 to $1500/pt.Multiple sensors per location required for IEQUse of more than a couple sensors is cost prohibitiveHigh Operating CostsAccuracy required often beyond sensor limitsPoor performance results = Lost energy savingsHigh maintenance costEvery sensor needs periodic calibration (1–3X/yr)HVAC systems degrade w/o optimizationLack of sufficient data & manual analysis costly
10 Conventional CO2 Sensing ASHRAE: Ventilation needs differential CO2 measurementOutside Air Sensor±75 PPM Error+ ±75 PPM Error= ±150 PPM ErrorReturn Air SensorDifferential MeasurementCO2 set point must account for total error-If 500 PPM (20 CFM OA/person) is target: set point 350 PPM Due to sensor error, actual level can vary from 200–500 PPMPotential over-ventilation is huge! Up to 150%OA CO2 varies greatly (not every day, but many days; depends on occupancy and wind direction)Since OA CO2 can change so much, an inside air CO2 set point makes no sense.Differential measurement is needed to control minimum ventilationDifferential measurement is very problematic for traditional sensorsAircuity solves the problem by using one sensor for both inside and outside airEven w/calibrated sensors, avg. OA can be 43% high!Potential energy penalty: ~$0.10–$0.20/ft2/year
11 At the 2007 ASHRAE IAQ Conference… Accuracy of CO2 Sensors in Commercial Buildings: A Pilot StudyLawrence Berkeley National Laboratories10% were dead: no output at all!Of the “working” sensors:10% had negative errors (half off by more than 50%!)90% had positive error (average positive error: +39%!)If DCV control was used:10% would have the OA dampers fully closedThe average OA airflow would be 260% too high!20% would have the OA dampers at 100% OA!
12 LBNL CO2 Field Sensor Study Results 10% Dead81% Read High(avg. 39%!)9% Low(½ by 50%)
13 LBNL: A Review of DCV; LBNL-60170 Michael G. Apte, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Indoor Environment Department“…data from the Iowa Energy Center showed long-term output from three “self calibrating” NDIR CO2 sensors operated side by side. Although these new sensors are guaranteed to hold calibration for five years, one unit was observed to have a positive baseline offset of 105 ppm compared to the other two that registered with 25 ppm at about 400 ppm. Nine months later, the baseline of the same unit had diverged by 265 ppm.”
15 Conventional CO2 Sensing Error Effects 500 CFM/Person: –150 PPM Error 200 PPM based on 350 PPM Set Point(150% Over-Vent)Wasted Energy29 CFM/Person: 0 PPM Error at 350 PPM Set Point(43% Over-Vent)20 CFM/Person: +150 PPM Error500 PPM based on350 PPM Set Point
16 California’s Title 24 (coming in 2009) ALLOWS reduction of the minimum ventilation rates (15 CFM/person) IF the building is equipped with a demand control ventilation system.REQUIRES DCV on any HVAC system that:A. Has an economizer, AND…B. Serves a space with a design occupant density… ≥ 25 people per 1,000ft2 (40ft2/person); AND…C. Is either single zone with any type of controls, or multiple zone systems with DDC.Exceptions: Classrooms, spaces with high exhaust, garage spaces, food prep areas, etc.
17 California’s Title 24 (coming in 2009) CO2 SensorsFor high density applications: requires a minimum of one sensor per 10,000 ft2.Requires:minimum accuracy of ±75 PPM,factory calibrated,“certified by the manufacturer to require calibration no more frequently than once every 5 years”.
18 Economizers Control Method Dry Bulb Temperature Outside air sensor versus fixed setpoint in designASHRAE Std has max values from 65-75Differential Enthalpy ControlSame outside air and return air sensor for °FRelative Humidity sensor for outside and return airNeed High Quality or Expect FailureResistive, capacitive, and thermal conductivity sensing technologies each offer distinct advantages. Resistive sensors are interchangeable, usable for remote locations, and cost effective. Capacitive sensors provide wide RH range and condensation tolerance, and, if laser trimmed, are also interchangeable. Thermal conductivity sensors perform well in corrosive environments and at high temperatures. For most applications, therefore, the environmental conditions dictate the sensor choice.
19 Dry Bulb EconomizerOA is at MinOA is at MaxOA/RA Mix55º F75º F
20 Differential Enthalpy Economizer OA is at MinOA is at MaxOA/RA Mixh = 26.1 Btu/lbm55º F75º F/40% RH
21 Dry Bulb vs. Diff. Enthalpy Economizer DB: OA is at MaxDE: OA is at MinOA is at MinOA is at MaxOA/RA Mixh = 26.1 Btu/lbmDB: OA is at Min DE: OA is at Max55º F75º F/40% RH
22 Dry Bulb vs. Diff. Enthalpy Economizer DB: OA is at MaxDE: OA is at MinOA is at MinOA at MaxOA/RA Mixh = 26.1 Btu/lbmDB: OA is at Min DE: OA is at Max55º F65º F
24 Example 2: Differential Enthalpy Sensing Best economizer is differential enthalpySavings increased by 15–100% over dry bulb typeComfort and IEQ increased as wellYet, dry bulb economizers dominate usageWHY?Enthalpy/humidity sensors are problematicHigh drift from outside air, low temp, particles, etc.Sensors often hard to access & calibrateDifferential measurement is prone to errorIf sensor error is ±5%, total error of two sensors is ±10%For a 10% RH difference, measurement error is ±100%Poorly working economizers waste $0.10–$0.50/ft2/yr
25 A New Approach: Multiplexed Air Packets Air Data RoutersI/OI/OI/OI/OBACnetto BASKnowledge CenterSensor SuiteCOInternetCO2InformationManagementServerDewptTVOCsParticlesExtra hard-wired points; Sensor quality (accuracy); Differential Sensing Error; Sensor quantity (cost); Sensor maintenance & calibration; BAS: knowledge vs. dataBrowserInterfaceStructuredCableVacuumPumpTransformerWeb AccessibleReports
26 A New Approach: Multiplexed Air Packets Air Data RoutersI/OI/OBACnetto BASKnowledge CenterSensor SuiteCOInternetCO2IMSDew pt.Conf.TVOCsOfficeParticlesRASABrowserInterfaceExtra hard-wired points; Sensor quality (accuracy); Differential Sensing Error; Sensor quantity (cost); Sensor maintenance & calibration; BAS: knowledge vs. dataVacuumPumpOfficeXfrmrOAWeb AccessibleReportsLobby26
27 OptiNet Facility Monitoring System Air HandlerAircuity Knowledge CenterWeb Browser3rd floor2nd floorInternet1st floorBasementSensor SuiteAir Data RouterLocal sensing pointOptiNet Structured cable
28 Typical Room/Zone Layout Air Data Router (ADR)To Sensor SuiteTo Next ADRStructured CableRoom 101Room 102Room 103Room 104
29 Optimizing Ventilation Zone ControlAHU ControlAny space that has VAV or 2-pos. ControlAny building that has Economizer DampersSchoolsOfficesHospitalsLabs & VivariumsSchoolsOfficesHospitals
30 Outside Air Applications Demand Control VentilationDCV saves energy by decreasing OA“Non-human pollutants” overrideIf indoor air is “dirty”, OA increasedDifferential Enthalpy Economizer ControlSaves energy by increasing OAContaminated OA overrideIf outside air is “dirty”, OA reduced1 SensorParticulate ControlVAV ORsData Centers Econ.Filter ValidationOA Measurement
33 Ensuring Filter Performance ??1 Check and change filters often (open loop)2 Check & Change filters; measure ΔP (open loop)3 Change filters when needed; measure ΔP; monitor particulates (closed loop)
34 Data Center Economizers Most Data Centers use little (if any) OARH and Particle concerns have been driversOA can be used safely to achieve huge energy savings7,000 ft2 data center could save up to 230MWh/year!
35 OA Measurement using CO2 Use Mass BalanceSupply Air CO2 equals the sum of the concentration of CO2 in the OA and RA weighted by the percentage of those components of the supply air. Or…RAOASA
36 Multi-parameter Demand Control Ventilation DCV saves energy by decreasing OA“Non-human pollutants” overrideIf indoor air is “dirty”, OA increasedTraditional DCV/CO2: waste energy or under-ventilateSingle CO2 set point: not the answerASHRAE says more than CO2 is neededMulti-parameter DCV providesBetter ventilationMore energy savings
37 OA Need Based on Design Occupancy CFM/person = 12,000 CFM
38 Single Set point Wastes Energy Excess OA = Wasted EnergyShoulder periods
39 OA Need Based on TVOC Events Not periodically predictableNeed more OA than required by occupancy
40 OA Requirements for ASHRAE DCV What happens if only CO2 is used?
42 Potentially Huge Energy Savings Excess OA = Wasted Energy = Savings Potential
43 Over-Ventilation: A Real Example Brigham & Women’s Hospital in Boston
44 Room Level Airflow Control Applications Dynamic Control of Min Ventilation & Fresh AirSimple dynamic override cuts across all marketsReduce room airflow min when CO2 and contaminants are lowIncrease airflow when CO2 or contaminants are highReduces both fan power & htg/clg costs from OAParticularly appropriate for multi-zone air handlersSample applicationsUse for DCV control of “critical” zones in offices, schools, etc.Critical zones are rooms w/lower supply air & higher occupancyReduces AHU’s outside air volume beyond AHU only controlReduces outside air dramatically in labs and vivariumsVary airflow use in hospital OR’s when unused
46 Another Application: Humidity Control Replace local RH sensor w/multiplexed dewpoint sensorApplications at the air handling unitHumidity control of outside & mixed return airApplications at the room/zone levelSupplemental humidity control in OR’s, animal rooms, offices, etc.Multiplexed dewpoint sensing has many benefitsMore accurate – Uses high quality sensorMore reliable – Calibration is cost effective & regularMore cost effective – One vs. many sensors
47 Demand Controlled Ventilation In Labs Why we have not done this to date:Safety of Occupants PrimaryBelief in High Air Changes per Hour (ACH) as a Dilution Strategy for Poor Lab PracticesLimited Confidence in Distributed Sensing Capability & CalibrationCost (first and operating)
48 Current Drivers of Lab Airflow Hood & thermal airflows are reduced; vary for peaksHigher “dilution” requirement is typically the driverVAVVAVConstant6-12 ACHVentilation Rate (CFM)2- 4 ACHFume HoodsThermal LoadACH/ Dilution
49 Trends in Laboratories VAV Fume Hood Control has gained wide acceptanceFume hood densities are much lowerMore computation & lower chemical quantitiesIncreased number of life sciences labsThermal loads have peaked & are droppingPlug loads down from energy efficient equipmentHigher efficiency lighting & more day lightingEnergy costs are soaring LEED labs
52 Always in Reheat (Low Load) AZ Lab Trend FindingsLab Min Vent CFM range: 9–16 ACH (Avg ~14)Max Cooling CFM: 10–21 Watts/ft2 (Avg ~14)Many Min Vent CFM ≈ Max Cooling CFMAlmost no VAV activity71% always at min ventMixed fume hood sash positions81%Always in Reheat (Low Load)5%14%Always Full Cooling(High Load)Mixed Clg/Reheat(Medium Load)
53 Yet Requirements Stay The Same Minimum air changes still fixed at 6 to 12 ACHNeed still exists for dilution ventilation in labsDilute vapors from a spill when lab is unoccupiedDilute vapors & gases caused by poor lab practicesWorking outside the hoodImproper storage of chemicalsNo localized exhaust for instruments“Overworking” & overcrowding of hoodsDilution: a backup to containmentFortunately, for most labs, room air is often “clean”
54 Actual Lab IEQ Case Study Major University laboratory facility15 labs monitored continuously for 10 monthsVentilation rate at 12 ACH per university IH groupResultTwo recorded “incidents” of elevated TVOC levels in several laboratories totaling 4-5 hours (0.07% of total hours)99.93% of the time, these labs could have been operated at lower airflow ratesCauseWorkers using fume hoods during scheduled hood maintenance periodsSolutionBetter internal communication between maintenance and occupants – No further incidents
57 Actual TVOC Data: 35 Days of 2 Lab Zones Control Setpoint Range
58 Lab Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) Varies dilution/min ACHs by sensing lab IEQIf lab air is clean, dilution airflow can be reducedPlus, greater lab dilution is provided when needed by sensing or manual overrideMost lab controls can vary min ACH levelsCritical piece: Sensing of IEQ parametersLab TVOCs, Particles, RH, CO, & CO2Barriers to date: Cost & practicalitySensor costLong term reliabilityCalibration of Distributed Sensors
59 Solution: Vary Dilution to Save Energy Lab DCV: Next generation lab airflow controlApply VAV control, to all lab air requirementsSignificantly reduce energy, find a way to increase safety6-12 ACHEnergy & First Cost SavingsVentilation Rate (CFM)VAVVAVVAV2- 4 ACHFume HoodsThermal LoadACH/ Dilution
61 LAB IEQ Monitoring Increases Lab Safety Validates the safe operation of a labDetect improper bench use of chemicalsDetect poorly containing fume hoodsSpills, fires, & rogue reactions rapidly sensedCheck lab pressurization (future), temp & RHAllows for safer lab airflow controlIncreased hood capture from reduced draftsDrops room flows when dilution not neededGreater dilution provided for spills, leaks, etc.12–15 ACHs can be provided automaticallySources of leaks & emissions can be foundWith fact based data, source controls can be used
62 Dynamic Control of Dilution Rates 1.5 L spill of acetone in 200ft2 labTotal PPM is lower with dynamic ventilationAfter vaporized, dynamic system hits TLV fasterAfter 1 hour Dynamic control has dropped level to .53 PPM
63 Dynamic Dilution Ventilation Control There is no need to dilute clean air w/ clean airTVOC, particle counter, etc. sense airHundreds of compounds are detected below TLV thresholdSmall number of compounds not detected are fairly dangerousShould not be used in a fume hoodSet min dilution levels per OSHA or as desiredFor high concern: 4 ACH occupied; 2 ACH unoccupiedOSHA guidelines have a minimum at 4 ACH (range of 4–12)For less severe applications, use 2 ACH as minimumASHRAE fresh air min for science lab is 0.18 CFM/ft2 or 1.2 ACHAppropriate for life sciences & less critical lab and support areasSet max dilution level at 12–16 ACH for safest purgeOr as high as the supply/exhaust valves can go
64 ASU Biodesign B – Aircuity Results Old Average Supply: 15,978 CFMAverage Savings: 10,636 CFMAt $6.00/CFM annually= $63,816 per year= $7.98/ft2 per year= 9 month payback!10,636 CFM SavingsJune 4, 2007Aircuity ActivationNew Average Supply: 5,229 CFM
65 Chilled Beams in Labs Multiplexed dewpoint sensing benefits: More reliableCalibration is cost effectiveCalibration regularly doneMore accurate – Uses high quality sensor(NDIR hygrometer)More cost effective1 vs. many sensorsReduced CostsSmaller ∆T
66 Average Dewpoint Levels For all Sites High lab dewpoint levels could create condensation on chilled beams w/o dewpoint sensing & control
67 DCV Case Study: GreenLab, Seattle Project FactsProject team:Owner – Vulcan (Paul Allen)Architect – Perkins & WillMechanical Eng. – Stantec (Keen Eng.)Contractor – SellenEstimator – Davis Langdon215,000 ft2 mixed use building75,000 ft2 lab area75,000 ft2 office25,000 ft2 optional vivariumDesign based on Aircuity Lab DCV
68 DCV Case Study: GreenLab, Seattle Lab DCV analysis assumptions:Lab area: 4–16 ACH vs. a fixed 9 ACHVivarium: 8–16 ACH vs. a fixed 15 ACHGross first cost savings: $1,025,000$13.68/ft2 gross or $8.68/ft2 net for labTotal bldg energy cut by $250,000/yr.Reduced total bldg’s utility bill by 20%ROI: 1.5 yr energy payback“Single greatest energy savings measure of the project”
69 Harvard Allston Lab Project Annual Energy SavingsEnergy Savings for 350K ft2 Lab $528,360Energy Savings for 50K ft2 Vivarium $275,200Total Annual Savings $803,560Total Installed Optinet System CostResearch Lab OptiNet system cost $750,000Vivarium OptiNet system cost $185,000Public Area OptiNet system cost $75,000Labor assumed at 35% of materials $355,000Total Installed OptiNet cost $1,365,000Simple Payback
70 Brigham & Women’s Hospital Example Annual Energy Savings:Floors 1 – 3 Fan power savings $40,414Floors 1 – 3 Outside Air savings $41,344Diff enthalpy vs. dry bulb economizers $58,788Total Energy Savings $140,546Total Installed System CostMaterial & Startup costs $96,000Deduct for 15 CO2 sensors - $18,000Deduct for 10 RH sensors - $10,000Installation cost $38,000Total adjusted installed cost $106,000Simple payback on above scope 0.76 years5 Year lifecycle analysis results +$504,235Assumes annual services of $18,500/yr
71 Aircuity at UC San Diego, Center Hall University Classroom Bldg.2,100 Student FacilityApplied MpDCVNet 1st Cost: $29KSaves over $38,000/year in energy45% of annual HVAC energy!Saves 310,000 Kwh & 1,100 MBTU9-Month Payback5-Year savings nearly $200K
72 Aircuity at Bank of America Tower, NYC 1st LEED Platinum SkyscraperJB&B, NYC Specified Aircuity$1.0B budget, 2.1M ft2 building40 Suites vs CO2 sensorsSaves $160K/year in maintenanceSaves $400K in replacement costsEvery 2-5 years!HIGHLIGHT A FEW PROJECTS FROM AIRCUITY’S CURRENT PIPELINELARGEST, MOST GREEN SKYSCRAPER IN THE WORLD – REGISTERED FOR THE HIGHEST LEED PLATINUM CERTIFICATIONAIRCUITY’S Aircuity SYSTEM HAS BEEN FLAT SPECIFIED FOR THIS BUILDING – MEANING ONLY AIRCUITY’S Aircuity SYSTEM IS ALLOWED AS THE FACILITY MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE BUILDINGOne Bryant Park
73 Aircuity at UBS in Stamford, CT World’s largest open securities trading floorAircuity Energy RetrofitVan Zelm Engineers, CT1.7 year energy paybackUBS’s STAMFORD FACILITY HOUSES THE WORLD’S LARGEST SECURITIES TRADING FLOORENERGY RETROFIT PROJECT IN COLLABORATION WITH CONNECTICUT LIGHT AND POWERDESIGN ENGINEER’S OWN ENERGY PAYBACK ANALYSIS CONCLUDED THAT Aircuity HAD A 1.7 YEAR ENERGY PAYBACK VS. THE TRADITIONAL DISTRIBUTED SENSOR APPROACH TO DCV
74 Aircuity at the Newark Arena (NJ Devils) 100,000 ft2 sports arena; $310M budgetVanderweil Associates; Flat specified AircuityDemanding Dew Point & DCV controlMultiple IEQ ParametersProject 1st Cost reduced by over $100K ($1/ft2)Saves $40,000/year in maintenanceSaves $90K in sensor replacement costsEvery 2-5 years
75 Some Laboratory/Vivarium Customers Harvard School of Public HealthMerck Research LabsGrand Valley State UnivAcadia UnivUniv of CincinnatiArizona State UnivRice UnivTexas Children’s HospitalChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaCase Western Reserve UnivRegina Provincial Labs
76 Some Commercial Applications Customers Yale UnivNYU Medical CenterBoston UnivUniv of Nevada – Las VegasCarnegie Mellon UnivBoeingUBS FinancialSt. Francis HospitalBristol Myers SquibbBrigham & Women’s HospitalPackard Humanities Inst. Film VaultNew Jersey Devils ArenaBank of America
77 Cost Effective LEED NC Points Primary impact on up to 4 points:IEQ potential: 3 pts.EQ - 1 : Permanent CO2/OA MonitoringEQ - 3.2: Construction IAQ Mgmt PlanEQ - 7.2: Permanent Comfort MonitoringInnovation in Design potential: 1 pt.Comprehensive IEQ Mgmt SystemMulti-parameter DCVEQ-1: LEED 2.2; For mechanically ventilated spaces; monitor any area with a density of more than 25 people/1,000sqft; naturally ventilated spaces, monitor all zones. For mechanically ventilated spaces with low occupancy density, provide a direct OA flow measurement device capable of measuring the minimum OA flow rate. We can use mass balance equations to meet this.EQ-3.2: LEED 2.2; 4PCH test only required for those materials that use 4PCH; For formaldehyde we use an auxiliary (handheld) sensor temporarily to take measurements and take the average over 4 hours per 25,000sqft.EQ-7.2; LEED 2.2; Used to be the Temp & Humidity point. A survey of the occupants is required to document their comfort. If less than 80% of the occupants are dissatisfied, you MUST have an approach/plan to correct the conditions. One of the approved/recommended approaches is to have a monitoring system in place. Our system is one option for meeting this plan.Comprehensive IEQ Management System: We look at more than just CO2 to measure the IEQ.
78 Cost Effective LEED NC Points System can assist/lower cost on up to 13 pts:Energy & Atmosphere potential: 12 pts.EA - 1: Optimize Energy: up to 10 pts.EA - 3 Enhanced Commissioning: 1 pt.EA - 5 Measurement & Verification: 1 pt.IEQ potential: 1 pointEQ - 3.1: Construction IAQ Mgmt Plan: 1 pt.EA-1: LEED 2.2; Must meet ASHRAE 90.1 first. Model the bldg and if you exceed the energy savings you get points by percent saved category. First 10% reduction is 1 pt. Each 3.5% after that is 1 pt.EA-3: LEED 2.2; Long term monitoring of the building (required by this point) is made easier by using OptiNet.EA-5: LEED 2.2: We monitor the economizer operation which is required under this point as part of a larger monitoring program.EQ-3.1; LEED 2.2; We provide some of the IAQ monitoring that is required under this point during construction.Facility monitoring can impact up to 15% of LEED points
79 ReviewTraditional technology has many shortfalls in the quest for long-term high performance building operationNow a solution exists to ensure that buildings satisfy both owners and occupantsOA management and associated sensors are key factorsThe benefits are measurable and can be substantial
80 Aircuity Summary An alternative approach for sustainable control Cost effectively improves OA efficiencyKey BenefitsEnergy savings5-50% annuallyReduced labor & operating costs20-40% annuallyImproved IEQIncreased productivity, peace of mindLEED Points“Actionable” informationGives you the power to keep your facilities operating at a high performance level today AND tomorrow.
81 Aircuity Summary An alternative approach for sustainable control Cost effectively improves OA efficiencyKey BenefitsEnergy savings5-50% annuallyReduced labor & operating costs20-40% annuallyImproved IEQIncreased productivity, peace of mindLEED Points“Actionable” informationGives you the power to keep your facilities operating at a high performance level today AND tomorrow.
82 A New Approach: Multiplexed Air Packets Air Data RoutersI/OI/OBACnetto BASKnowledge CenterSensor SuiteCOInternetCO2IMSDew pt.Conf.TVOCsOfficeParticlesRASABrowserInterfaceExtra hard-wired points; Sensor quality (accuracy); Differential Sensing Error; Sensor quantity (cost); Sensor maintenance & calibration; BAS: knowledge vs. dataVacuumPumpOfficeXfrmrOAWeb AccessibleReportsLobby82